* Your assessment is very important for improving the workof artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

# Download Mechanical Vibrations

Fictitious force wikipedia , lookup

Theoretical and experimental justification for the Schrödinger equation wikipedia , lookup

Relativistic quantum mechanics wikipedia , lookup

Hooke's law wikipedia , lookup

Center of mass wikipedia , lookup

Relativistic mechanics wikipedia , lookup

Classical mechanics wikipedia , lookup

Routhian mechanics wikipedia , lookup

Newton's theorem of revolving orbits wikipedia , lookup

Jerk (physics) wikipedia , lookup

Brownian motion wikipedia , lookup

Matter wave wikipedia , lookup

Hunting oscillation wikipedia , lookup

Newton's laws of motion wikipedia , lookup

Rigid body dynamics wikipedia , lookup

Seismometer wikipedia , lookup

Equations of motion wikipedia , lookup

Centripetal force wikipedia , lookup

bee29400_ch19_1212-1287.indd Page 1213 12/16/08 12:38:40 PM user-s172 /Volumes/204/MHDQ077/work%0/indd%0 19 C H A P T E R Mechanical Vibrations 1213 bee29400_ch19_1212-1287.indd Page 1214 12/16/08 12:39:08 PM user-s172 /Volumes/204/MHDQ077/work%0/indd%0 Chapter 19 Mechanical Vibrations 19.1 19.1 A mechanical vibration is the motion of a particle or a body which oscillates about a position of equilibrium. Most vibrations in machines and structures are undesirable because of the increased stresses and energy losses which accompany them. They should therefore be eliminated or reduced as much as possible by appropriate design. The analysis of vibrations has become increasingly important in recent years owing to the current trend toward higher-speed machines and lighter structures. There is every reason to expect that this trend will continue and that an even greater need for vibration analysis will develop in the future. The analysis of vibrations is a very extensive subject to which entire texts have been devoted. Our present study will therefore be limited to the simpler types of vibrations, namely, the vibrations of a body or a system of bodies with one degree of freedom. A mechanical vibration generally results when a system is displaced from a position of stable equilibrium. The system tends to return to this position under the action of restoring forces (either elastic forces, as in the case of a mass attached to a spring, or gravitational forces, as in the case of a pendulum). But the system generally reaches its original position with a certain acquired velocity which carries it beyond that position. Since the process can be repeated indefinitely, the system keeps moving back and forth across its position of equilibrium. The time interval required for the system to complete a full cycle of motion is called the period of the vibration. The number of cycles per unit time defines the frequency, and the maximum displacement of the system from its position of equilibrium is called the amplitude of the vibration. When the motion is maintained by the restoring forces only, the vibration is said to be a free vibration (Secs. 19.2 to 19.6). When a periodic force is applied to the system, the resulting motion is described as a forced vibration (Sec. 19.7). When the effects of friction can be neglected, the vibrations are said to be undamped. However, all vibrations are actually damped to some degree. If a free vibration is only slightly damped, its amplitude slowly decreases until, after a certain time, the motion comes to a stop. But if damping is large enough to prevent any true vibration, the system then slowly regains its original position (Sec. 19.8). A damped forced vibration is maintained as long as the periodic force which produces the vibration is applied. The amplitude of the vibration, however, is affected by the magnitude of the damping forces (Sec. 19.9). Introduction Vibrations without Damping 19.2 Free Vibrations of Particles. Simple Harmonic Motion 19.3 Simple Pendulum (Approximate Solution) 19.4 Simple Pendulum (Exact Solution) 19.5 Free Vibrations of Rigid Bodies 19.6 Application of the Principle of Conservation of Energy 19.7 Forced Vibrations Damped Vibrations 19.8 Damped Free Vibrations 19.9 Damped Forced Vibrations 19.10 Electrical Analogues INTRODUCTION VIBRATIONS WITHOUT DAMPING 19.2 FREE VIBRATIONS OF PARTICLES. SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION Consider a body of mass m attached to a spring of constant k (Fig. 19.1a). Since at the present time we are concerned only with the motion of its mass center, we will refer to this body as a particle. When the particle is in static equilibrium, the forces acting on it are its weight W and the force T exerted by the spring, of magnitude 1214 bee29400_ch19_1212-1287.indd Page 1215 12/16/08 12:39:09 PM user-s172 /Volumes/204/MHDQ077/work%0/indd%0 T 5 kdst, where dst denotes the elongation of the spring. We have, therefore, 19.2 Free Vibrations of Particles. Simple Harmonic Motion 1215 W 5 kdst Suppose now that the particle is displaced through a distance xm from its equilibrium position and released with no initial velocity. If xm has been chosen smaller than dst, the particle will move back and forth through its equilibrium position; a vibration of amplitude xm has been generated. Note that the vibration can also be produced by imparting a certain initial velocity to the particle when it is in its equilibrium position x 5 0 or, more generally, by starting the particle from any given position x 5 x0 with a given initial velocity v0. To analyze the vibration, let us consider the particle in a position P at some arbitrary time t (Fig. 19.1b). Denoting by x the displacement OP measured from the equilibrium position O (positive downward), we note that the forces acting on the particle are its weight W and the force T exerted by the spring which, in this position, has a magnitude T 5 k(dst 1 x). Recalling that W 5 kdst, we find that the magnitude of the resultant F of the two forces (positive downward) is dst Equilibrium W (a) − xm (19.1) F 5 W 2 k(dst 1 x) 5 2kx T = kdst Unstretched Thus the resultant of the forces exerted on the particle is proportional to the displacement OP measured from the equilibrium position. Recalling the sign convention, we note that F is always directed toward the equilibrium position O. Substituting for F into the fundamental equation F 5 ma and recalling that a is the second derivative ẍ of x with respect to t, we write T = k(dst + x) O x Equilibrium m ẍ 1 kx 5 0 (19.2) Note that the same sign convention should be used for the acceleration ẍ and for the displacement x, namely, positive downward. The motion defined by Eq. (19.2) is called a simple harmonic motion. It is characterized by the fact that the acceleration is proportional to the displacement and of opposite direction. We can verify that each of the functions x1 5 sin (1k/m t) and x2 5 cos (1k/m t) satisfies Eq. (19.2). These functions, therefore, constitute two particular solutions of the differential equation (19.2). The general solution of Eq. (19.2) is obtained by multiplying each of the particular solutions by an arbitrary constant and adding. Thus, the general solution is expressed as x 5 C 1x1 1 C 2x2 5 C 1 sin a k k tb 1 C 2 cos a tb Am Am (19.3) We note that x is a periodic function of the time t and does, therefore, represent a vibration of the particle P. The coefficient of t in the expression we have obtained is referred to as the natural circular frequency of the vibration and is denoted by vn. We have Natural circular frequency 5 v n 5 k Am (19.4) = P + xm W .. ma = mx + (b) Fig. 19.1 bee29400_ch19_1212-1287.indd Page 1216 1216 Mechanical Vibrations 12/16/08 12:39:22 PM user-s172 /Volumes/204/MHDQ077/work%0/indd%0 Substituting for 1k/m into Eq. (19.3), we write x 5 C1 sin vnt 1 C2 cos vnt (19.5) This is the general solution of the differential equation ẍ 1 v2n x 5 0 (19.6) which can be obtained from Eq. (19.2) by dividing both terms by m and observing that k/m 5 v2n. Differentiating twice both members of Eq. (19.5) with respect to t, we obtain the following expressions for the velocity and the acceleration at time t: v 5 ẋ 5 C1vn cos vnt 2 C2vn sin vnt a 5 ẍ 5 2C1v2n sin vnt 2 C2v2n cos vnt (19.7) (19.8) The values of the constants C1 and C2 depend upon the initial conditions of the motion. For example, we have C1 5 0 if the particle is displaced from its equilibrium position and released at t 5 0 with no initial velocity, and we have C2 5 0 if the particle is started from O at t 5 0 with a certain initial velocity. In general, substituting t 5 0 and the initial values x0 and v0 of the displacement and the velocity into Eqs. (19.5) and (19.7), we find that C1 5 v0 /vn and C2 5 x0. The expressions obtained for the displacement, velocity, and acceleration of a particle can be written in a more compact form if we observe that Eq. (19.5) expresses that the displacement x 5 OP is the sum of the x components of two vectors C1 and C2, respectively, of magnitude C1 and C2, directed as shown in Fig. 19.2a. As t varies, both vectors rotate clockwise; we also note that the magnitude of their ¡ resultant OQ is equal to the maximum displacement xm. The simple harmonic motion of P along the x axis can thus be obtained by projecting on this axis the motion of a point Q describing an auxiliary circle of radius xm with a constant angular velocity vn (which explains the name of natural circular frequency given to vn). Denoting by f ¡ the angle formed by the vectors OQ and C1, we write OP 5 OQ sin (vnt 1 f) (19.9) which leads to new expressions for the displacement, velocity, and acceleration of P: x 5 xm sin (vnt 1 f) (19.10) v 5 ẋ 5 xmvn cos (vnt 1 f) a 5 ẍ 5 2xmv2n sin (vnt 1 f) (19.11) (19.12) The displacement-time curve is represented by a sine curve (Fig. 19.2b); the maximum value xm of the displacement is called the amplitude of the vibration, and the angle f which defines the initial position of Q on the circle is called the phase angle. We note from Fig. 19.2 that a full cycle is described as the angle vnt increases by 2p rad. The corresponding value of t, denoted by tn, is called the period of the free vibration and is measured in seconds. We have bee29400_ch19_1212-1287.indd Page 1217 12/16/08 12:39:28 PM user-s172 /Volumes/204/MHDQ077/work%0/indd%0 − xm 19.2 Free Vibrations of Particles. Simple Harmonic Motion t O wnt xm C2 P wnt C1 f x Q + xm + t (a) (b) Fig. 19.2 period 5 tn 5 2p vn (19.13) The number of cycles described per unit of time is denoted by fn and is known as the natural frequency of the vibration. We write Natural frequency 5 fn 5 vn 1 5 tn 2p (19.14) The unit of frequency is a frequency of 1 cycle per second, corresponding to a period of 1 s. In terms of base units the unit of frequency is thus 1/s or s21. It is called a hertz (Hz) in the SI system of units. It also follows from Eq. (19.14) that a frequency of 1 s21 or 1 Hz corresponds to a circular frequency of 2p rad/s. In problems involving angular velocities expressed in revolutions per minute (rpm), we have 1 rpm 5 601 s21 5 601 Hz, or 1 rpm 5 (2p/60) rad/s. Recalling that vn was defined in (19.4) in terms of the constant k of the spring and the mass m of the particle, we observe that the period and the frequency are independent of the initial conditions and of the amplitude of the vibration. Note that tn and fn depend on the mass rather than on the weight of the particle and thus are independent of the value of g. The velocity-time and acceleration-time curves can be represented by sine curves of the same period as the displacement-time curve, but with different phase angles. From Eqs. (19.11) and (19.12), we note that the maximum values of the magnitudes of the velocity and acceleration are vm 5 xmvn am 5 xmv2n (19.15) xm O Since the point Q describes the auxiliary circle, of radius xm, at the constant angular velocity vn, its velocity and acceleration are equal, respectively, to the expressions (19.15). Recalling Eqs. (19.11) and (19.12), we find, therefore, that the velocity and acceleration of P can be obtained at any instant by projecting on the x axis vectors of magnitudes vm 5 xmvn and am 5 xmv2n representing, respectively, the velocity and acceleration of Q at the same instant (Fig. 19.3). a x P v x Fig. 19.3 wnt f Q0 a m = x mwn2 Q wnt + f vm = x mwn 1217 bee29400_ch19_1212-1287.indd Page 1218 1218 12/16/08 12:39:31 PM user-s172 The results obtained are not limited to the solution of the problem of a mass attached to a spring. They can be used to analyze the rectilinear motion of a particle whenever the resultant F of the forces acting on the particle is proportional to the displacement x and directed toward O. The fundamental equation of motion F 5 ma can then be written in the form of Eq. (19.6), which is characteristic of a simple harmonic motion. Observing that the coefficient of x must be equal to v2n, we can easily determine the natural circular frequency vn of the motion. Substituting the value obtained for vn into Eqs. (19.13) and (19.14), we then obtain the period tn and the natural frequency fn of the motion. Mechanical Vibrations 19.3 q m (a) T man = W SIMPLE PENDULUM (APPROXIMATE SOLUTION) Most of the vibrations encountered in engineering applications can be represented by a simple harmonic motion. Many others, although of a different type, can be approximated by a simple harmonic motion, provided that their amplitude remains small. Consider, for example, a simple pendulum, consisting of a bob of mass m attached to a cord of length l, which can oscillate in a vertical plane (Fig. 19.4a). At a given time t, the cord forms an angle u with the vertical. The forces acting on the bob are its weight W and the force T exerted by the cord (Fig. 19.4b). Resolving the vector ma into tangential and normal components, with mat directed to the right, i.e., in the direction corresponding to increasing values of u, and observing that at 5 la 5 lü, we write l mat oFt 5 mat: 2W sin u 5 mlü Noting that W 5 mg and dividing through by ml, we obtain ü 1 (b) Fig. 19.4 /Volumes/204/MHDQ077/work%0/indd%0 g l sin u 5 0 (19.16) For oscillations of small amplitude, we can replace sin u by u, expressed in radians, and write ü 1 g l u50 (19.17) Comparison with Eq. (19.6) shows that the differential equation (19.17) is that of a simple harmonic motion with a natural circular frequency vn equal to (g/l)1/2. The general solution of Eq. (19.17) can, therefore, be expressed as u 5 um sin (vnt 1 f) where um is the amplitude of the oscillations and f is a phase angle. Substituting into Eq. (19.13) the value obtained for vn, we get the following expression for the period of the small oscillations of a pendulum of length l: tn 5 2p l 5 2p vn Ag (19.18) bee29400_ch19_1212-1287.indd Page 1219 12/16/08 8:55:39 PM user-s172 *19.4 /Volumes/204/MHDQ077/work%0/indd%0 19.4 Simple Pendulum (Exact Solution) SIMPLE PENDULUM (EXACT SOLUTION) Formula (19.18) is only approximate. To obtain an exact expression for the period of the oscillations of a simple pendulum, we must return to Eq. (19.16). Multiplying both terms by 2u̇ and integrating from an initial position corresponding to the maximum deflection, that is, u 5 um and u̇ 5 0, we write a 2g du 2 (cos u 2 cos um ) b 5 l dt Replacing cos u by 1 2 2 sin2 (u/2) and cos um by a similar expression, solving for dt, and integrating over a quarter period from t 5 0, u 5 0 to t 5 tn /4, u 5 um, we have tn 5 2 l Ag # um du 2 2sin (um/2) 2 sin2 (u/2) The integral in the right-hand member is known as an elliptic integral; it cannot be expressed in terms of the usual algebraic or trigonometric functions. However, setting 0 sin (u/2) 5 sin (um /2) sin f we can write l tn 5 4 Ag # p/2 df (19.19) 21 2 sin (um /2) sin2 f where the integral obtained, commonly denoted by K, can be calculated by using a numerical method of integration. It can also be found in tables of elliptic integrals for various values of um /2.† In order to compare the result just obtained with that of the preceding section, we write Eq. (19.19) in the form 2 0 tn 5 2K l a2p b p Ag (19.20) Formula (19.20) shows that the actual value of the period of a simple pendulum can be obtained by multiplying the approximate value given in Eq. (19.18) by the correction factor 2K /p. Values of the correction factor are given in Table 19.1 for various values of the amplitude um. We note that for ordinary engineering computations the correction factor can be omitted as long as the amplitude does not exceed 10°. TABLE 19.1 Correction Factor for the Period of a Simple Pendulum um 0° 10° 20° 30° 60° 90° 120° 150° 180° K 1.571 1.574 1.583 1.598 1.686 1.854 2.157 2.768 ` 2K/p 1.000 1.002 1.008 1.017 1.073 1.180 1.373 1.762 ` †See, for example, Standard Mathematical Tables, Chemical Rubber Publishing Company, Cleveland, Ohio. 1219 bee29400_ch19_1212-1287.indd Page 1220 12/16/08 12:39:33 PM user-s172 /Volumes/204/MHDQ077/work%0/indd%0 SAMPLE PROBLEM 19.1 k1 = 4 kN/m A 50-kg block moves between vertical guides as shown. The block is pulled 40 mm down from its equilibrium position and released. For each spring arrangement, determine the period of the vibration, the maximum velocity of the block, and the maximum acceleration of the block. k 2 = 6 kN/m (a) (b) k1d k 2d d SOLUTION a. Springs Attached in Parallel. We first determine the constant k of a single spring equivalent to the two springs by finding the magnitude of the force P required to cause a given deflection d. Since for a deflection d the magnitudes of the forces exerted by the springs are, respectively, k1d and k2d, we have P 5 k1d 1 k2d 5 (k1 1 k2)d The constant k of the single equivalent spring is P k5 P 5 k1 1 k2 5 4 kN/m 1 6 kN/m 5 10 kN/m 5 104 N/m d Period of Vibration: Since m 5 50 kg, Eq. (19.4) yields v 2n 5 k 104 N/m 5 vn 5 14.14 rad/s m 50 kg tn 5 0.444 s ◀ tn 5 2pyvn Maximum Velocity: vm 5 xmvn 5 (0.040 m)(14.14 rad/s) vm 5 0.566 m/s vm 5 0.566 m/s D ◀ Maximum Acceleration: am 5 xmv2n 5 (0.040 m)(14.14 rad/s)2 am 5 8.00 m/s2 l1 l1 + d1 l2 l2 + d2 d P am 5 8.00 m/s2 D ◀ b. Springs Attached in Series. We first determine the constant k of a single spring equivalent to the two springs by finding the total elongation d of the springs under a given static load P. To facilitate the computation, a static load of magnitude P 5 12 kN is used. P P 12 kN 12 kN 1 5 1 55m k1 k2 4 kN/m 6 kN/m P 12 kN 5 2.4 kN/m 5 2400 N/m k5 5 d 5m d 5 d1 1 d2 5 Period of Vibration: v2n 5 tn 5 k 2400 N/m 5 m 50 kg vn 5 6.93 rad/s 2p vn tn 5 0.907 s ◀ Maximum Velocity: vm 5 xmvn 5 (0.040 m)(6.93 rad/s) vm 5 0.277 m/s vm 5 0.277 m/s D ◀ Maximum Acceleration: am 5 xmv2n 5 (0.040 m)(6.93 rad/s)2 am 5 1.920 m/s2 am 5 1.920 m/s2 D ◀ 1220 bee29400_ch19_1212-1287.indd Page 1221 12/16/08 12:39:36 PM user-s172 /Volumes/204/MHDQ077/work%0/indd%0 SOLVING PROBLEMS ON YOUR OWN T his chapter deals with mechanical vibrations, i.e., with the motion of a particle or body oscillating about a position of equilibrium. In this first lesson, we saw that a free vibration of a particle occurs when the particle is subjected to a force proportional to its displacement and of opposite direction, such as the force exerted by a spring (Fig. 19.1). The resulting motion, called a simple harmonic motion, is characterized by the differential equation mẍ 1 kx 5 0 (19.2) where x is the displacement of the particle, ẍ is its acceleration, m is its mass, and k is the constant of the spring. The solution of this differential equation was found to be x 5 xm sin (vnt 1 f) (19.10) where xm 5 amplitude of the vibration v n 5 1k/m 5 natural circular frequency (rad/s) f 5 phase angle (rad) We also defined the period of the vibration as the time tn 5 2p/vn needed for the particle to complete one cycle, and the natural frequency as the number of cycles per second, fn 5 1/tn 5 vn /2p, expressed in Hz or s21. Differentiating Eq. (19.10) twice yields the velocity and the acceleration of the particle at any time. The maximum values of the velocity and acceleration were found to be vm 5 xmvn am 5 xmv2n (19.15) To determine the parameters in Eq. (19.10) you can follow these steps. 1. Draw a free-body diagram showing the forces exerted on the particle when the particle is at a distance x from its position of equilibrium. The resultant of these forces will be proportional to x and its direction will be opposite to the positive direction of x [Eq. (19.1)]. 2. Write the differential equation of motion by equating to mẍ the resultant of the forces found in step 1. Note that once a positive direction for x has been chosen, the same sign convention should be used for the acceleration ẍ. After transposition, you will obtain an equation of the form of Eq. (19.2). (continued) 1221 bee29400_ch19_1212-1287.indd Page 1222 12/16/08 12:39:49 PM user-s172 /Volumes/204/MHDQ077/work%0/indd%0 3. Determine the natural circular frequency Vn by dividing the coefficient of x by the coefficient of ẍ in this equation and taking the square root of the result obtained. Make sure that vn is expressed in rad/s. 4. Determine the amplitude x m and the phase angle F by substituting the . value obtained for vn and the initial values of x and x into Eq. (19.10) and the equation obtained by differentiating Eq. (19.10) with respect to t. Equation (19.10) and the two equations obtained by differentiating Eq. (19.10) twice with respect to t can now be used to find the displacement, velocity, and acceleration of the particle at any time. Equations (19.15) yield the maximum velocity vm and the maximum acceleration am. 5. You also saw that for the small oscillations of a simple pendulum, the angle u that the cord of the pendulum forms with the vertical satisfies the differential equation ü 1 g l u50 (19.17) where l is the length of the cord and where u is expressed in radians [Sec. 19.3]. This equation defines again a simple harmonic motion, and its solution is of the same form as Eq. (19.10), u 5 um sin (vnt 1 f) where the natural circular frequency v n 5 1g/l is expressed in rad/s. The determination of the various constants in this expression is carried out in a manner similar to that described above. Remember that the velocity of the bob is tangent to the path and that its magnitude is v 5 lu̇, while the acceleration of the bob has a tangential component at, of magnitude at 5 lü, and a normal component an directed toward the center of the path and of magnitude an 5 lu̇ 2. 1222 bee29400_ch19_1212-1287.indd Page 1223 12/16/08 12:39:51 PM user-s172 /Volumes/204/MHDQ077/work%0/indd%0 PROBLEMS 19.1 Determine the maximum velocity and maximum acceleration of a particle which moves in simple harmonic motion with an amplitude of 0.2 in. and a period of 0.1 s. 20 lb/in. 19.2 Determine the amplitude and maximum velocity of a particle which moves in simple harmonic motion with a maximum acceleration of 60 m/s2 and a frequency of 40 Hz. 30 lb 19.3 A particle moves in simple harmonic motion. Knowing that the amplitude is 300 mm and the maximum acceleration is 5 m/s2 , determine the maximum velocity of the particle and the frequency of its motion. Fig. P19.4 19.4 A 30-lb block is supported by the spring shown. If the block is moved vertically downward from its equilibrium position and released, determine (a) the period and frequency of the resulting motion, (b) the maximum velocity and acceleration of the block if the amplitude of its motion is 2.1 in. 32 kg k = 12 kN/m 19.5 A 32-kg block is attached to a spring and can move without friction in a slot as shown. The block is in its equilibrium position when it is struck by a hammer which imparts to the block an initial velocity of 250 mm/s. Determine (a) the period and frequency of the resulting motion, (b) the amplitude of the motion and the maximum acceleration of the block. Fig. P19.5 19.6 A simple pendulum consisting of a bob attached to a cord oscillates in a vertical plane with a period of 1.3 s. Assuming simple harmonic motion and knowing that the maximum velocity of the bob is 15 in./s, determine (a) the amplitude of the motion in degrees, (b) the maximum tangential acceleration of the bob. l q m 19.7 A simple pendulum consisting of a bob attached to a cord of length l 5 800 mm oscillates in a vertical plane. Assuming simple harmonic motion and knowing that the bob is released from rest when u 5 6°, determine (a) the frequency of oscillation, (b) the maximum velocity of the bob. Fig. P19.6 and P19.7 A 19.8 An instrument package A is bolted to a shaker table as shown. The table moves vertically in simple harmonic motion at the same frequency as the variable-speed motor which drives it. The package is to be tested at a peak acceleration of 150 ft/s2. Knowing that the amplitude of the shaker table is 2.3 in., determine (a) the required speed of the motor in rpm, (b) the maximum velocity of the table. 19.9 The motion of a particle is described by the equation x 5 5 sin 2t 1 4 cos 2t, where x is expressed in meters and t in seconds. Determine (a) the period of the motion, (b) its amplitude, (c) its phase angle. Fig. P19.8 1223 bee29400_ch19_1212-1287.indd Page 1224 1224 12/16/08 12:39:54 PM user-s172 /Volumes/204/MHDQ077/work%0/indd%0 19.10 An instrument package B is placed on the shaking table C as Mechanical Vibrations shown. The table is made to move horizontally in simple harmonic motion with a frequency of 3 Hz. Knowing that the coefficient of static friction is ms 5 0.40 between the package and the table, determine the largest allowable amplitude of the motion if the package is not to slip on the table. Give the answers in both SI and U.S. customary units. B C Fig. P19.10 19.11 A 32-kg block attached to a spring of constant k 5 12 kN/m can move without friction in a slot as shown. The block is given an initial 300-mm displacement downward from its equilibrium position and released. Determine 1.5 s after the block has been released (a) the total distance traveled by the block, (b) the acceleration of the block. 32 kg k = 12 kN/m Fig. P19.11 k 19.12 A 3-lb block is supported as shown by a spring of constant k 5 A Fig. P19.12 m 2 lb/in. which can act in tension or compression. The block is in its equilibrium position when it is struck from below by a hammer which imparts to the block an upward velocity of 90 in./s. Determine (a) the time required for the block to move 3 in. upward, (b) the corresponding velocity and acceleration of the block. 19.13 In Prob. 19.12, determine the position, velocity, and acceleration of the block 0.90 s after it has been struck by the hammer. 19.14 The bob of a simple pendulum of length l 5 800 mm is released from rest when u 5 15°. Assuming simple harmonic motion, determine 1.6 s after release (a) the angle u, (b) the magnitudes of the velocity and acceleration of the bob. l q m Fig. P19.14 bee29400_ch19_1212-1287.indd Page 1225 12/16/08 12:39:55 PM user-s172 /Volumes/204/MHDQ077/work%0/indd%0 Problems 19.15 A 5-kg collar rests on but is not attached to the spring shown. It is observed that when the collar is pushed down 180 mm or more and released, it loses contact with the spring. Determine (a) the spring constant, (b) the position, velocity, and acceleration of the collar 0.16 s after it has been pushed down 180 mm and released. 19.16 An 8-kg collar C can slide without friction on a horizontal rod between two identical springs A and B to which it is not attached. Each spring has a constant of 600 N/m. The collar is pushed to the left against spring A, compressing that spring 20 mm, and released in the position shown. It then slides along the rod to the right and hits spring B. After compressing that spring 20 mm, the collar slides to the left and hits spring A, which it compresses 20 mm. The cycle is then repeated. Determine (a) the period of the motion of the collar, (b) the position of the collar 1.5 s after it was pushed against spring A and released. (Note: This is a periodic motion, but not a simple harmonic motion.) A m k Fig. P19.15 60 mm A B C 20 mm Fig. P19.16 19.17 and 19.18 A 35-kg block is supported by the spring arrangement shown. The block is moved vertically downward from its equilibrium position and released. Knowing that the amplitude of the resulting motion is 45 mm, determine (a) the period and frequency of the motion, (b) the maximum velocity and maximum acceleration of the block. 16 kN/m 16 kN/m 16 kN/m Fig. P19.18 35 kg 8 kN/m 35 kg 8 kN/m 30 lb 20 lb/in. Fig. P19.17 19.19 A 30-lb block is supported by the spring arrangement shown. If the block is moved from its equilibrium position 1.75 in. vertically downward and released, determine (a) the period and frequency of the resulting motion, (b) the maximum velocity and acceleration of the block. 16 lb/in. 12 lb/in. Fig. P19.19 1225 bee29400_ch19_1212-1287.indd Page 1226 1226 12/16/08 12:39:55 PM user-s172 /Volumes/204/MHDQ077/work%0/indd%0 19.20 A 5-kg block, attached to the lower end of a spring whose upper Mechanical Vibrations end is fixed, vibrates with a period of 6.8 s. Knowing that the constant k of a spring is inversely proportional to its length, determine the period of a 3-kg block which is attached to the center of the same spring if the upper and lower ends of the spring are fixed. 2k 19.21 A 30-lb block is supported by the spring arrangement shown. The block is moved from its equilibrium position 0.8 in. vertically downward and released. Knowing that the period of the resulting motion is 1.5 s, determine (a) the constant k, (b) the maximum velocity and maximum acceleration of the block. k k 19.22 Two springs of constants k1 and k2 are connected in series to a 30 lb Fig. P19.21 block A that vibrates in simple harmonic motion with a period of 5 s. When the same two springs are connected in parallel to the same block, the block vibrates with a period of 2 s. Determine the ratio k1 /k2 of the two spring constants. k1 k2 k1 A k2 A Fig. P19.22 19.23 The period of vibration of the system shown is observed to be 0.6 s. A 3 lb B Fig. P19.23 After cylinder B has been removed, the period is observed to be 0.5 s. Determine (a) the weight of cylinder A, (b) the constant of the spring. 19.24 The period of vibration of the system shown is observed to be 0.8 s. If block A is removed, the period is observed to be 0.7 s. Determine (a) the mass of block C, (b) the period of vibration when both blocks A and B have been removed. k1 3 kg A 3 kg B C Fig. P19.24 k2 = 20 lb/in. 19.25 The period of vibration of the system shown is observed to be 0.2 s. A Fig. P19.25 After the spring of constant k2 5 20 lb/in. is removed and block A is connected to the spring of constant k1, the period is observed to be 0.12 s. Determine (a) the constant k1 of the remaining spring, (b) the weight of block A. bee29400_ch19_1212-1287.indd Page 1227 12/16/08 12:39:56 PM user-s172 /Volumes/204/MHDQ077/work%0/indd%0 Problems 19.26 The 100-lb platform A is attached to springs B and D, each of which has a constant k 5 120 lb/ft. Knowing that the frequency of vibration of the platform is to remain unchanged when an 80-lb block is placed on it and a third spring C is added between springs B and D, determine the required constant of spring C. 1227 A B C D 19.27 From mechanics of materials it is known that when a static load P is applied at the end B of a uniform metal rod fixed at end A, the length of the rod will increase by an amount d 5 PL/AE, where L is the length of the undeformed rod, A is its cross-sectional area, and E is the modulus of elasticity of the metal. Knowing that L 5 450 mm and E 5 200 GPa and that the diameter of the rod is 8 mm, and neglecting the mass of the rod, determine (a) the equivalent spring constant of the rod, (b) the frequency of the vertical vibrations of a block of mass m 5 8 kg attached to end B of the same rod. A L Fig. P19.26 A L B B d m P (a) (b) Fig. P19.27 P 19.28 From mechanics of materials it is known that for a cantilever beam of constant cross section a static load P applied at end B will cause a deflection dB 5 PL3/3EI, where L is the length of the beam, E is the modulus of elasticity, and I is the moment of inertia of the cross-sectional area of the beam. Knowing that L 5 10 ft, E 5 29 3 106 lb/in2, and I 5 12.4 in4, determine (a) the equivalent spring constant of the beam, (b) the frequency of vibration of a 520-lb block attached to end B of the same beam. 19.29 A 1.6-in. deflection of the second floor of a building is measured directly under a newly installed 8200-lb piece of rotating machinery which has a slightly unbalanced rotor. Assuming that the deflection of the floor is proportional to the load it supports, determine (a) the equivalent spring constant of the floor system, (b) the speed in rpm of the rotating machinery that should be avoided if it is not to coincide with the natural frequency of the floor-machinery system. 19.30 The force-deflection equation for a nonlinear spring fixed at one end is F 5 5x1/2 where F is the force, expressed in newtons, applied at the other end and x is the deflection expressed in meters. (a) Determine the deflection x0 if a 120-g block is suspended from the spring and is at rest. (b) Assuming that the slope of the forcedeflection curve at the point corresponding to this loading can be used as an equivalent spring constant, determine the frequency of vibration of the block if it is given a very small downward displacement from its equilibrium position and released. A dB B L Fig. P19.28 bee29400_ch19_1212-1287.indd Page 1228 1228 12/16/08 12:39:56 PM user-s172 /Volumes/204/MHDQ077/work%0/indd%0 19.31 If h 5 700 mm and d 5 500 mm and each spring has a constant Mechanical Vibrations k 5 600 N/m, determine the mass m for which the period of small oscillations is (a) 0.50 s, (b) infinite. Neglect the mass of the rod and assume that each spring can act in either tension or compression. B m 19.32 Denoting by dst the static deflection of a beam under a given load, show that the frequency of vibration of the load is h f5 d Neglect the mass of the beam, and assume that the load remains in contact with the beam. A Fig. P19.31 g 1 A 2p dst *19.33 Expanding the integrand in Eq. (19.19) of Sec. 19.4 into a series of even powers of sin w and integrating, show that the period of a simple pendulum of length l may be approximated by the formula t 5 2p um l a1 1 14 sin2 b Ag 2 where um is the amplitude of the oscillations. *19.34 Using the formula given in Prob. 19.33, determine the amplitude um for which the period of a simple pendulum is 12 percent longer than the period of the same pendulum for small oscillations. *19.35 Using the data of Table 19.1, determine the period of a simple pendulum of length l 5 750 mm (a) for small oscillations, (b) for oscillations of amplitude um 5 60°, (c) for oscillations of amplitude um 5 90°. *19.36 Using the data of Table 19.1, determine the length in inches of a simple pendulum which oscillates with a period of 2 s and an amplitude of 90°. 19.5 FREE VIBRATIONS OF RIGID BODIES The analysis of the vibrations of a rigid body or of a system or rigid bodies possessing a single degree of freedom is similar to the analysis of the vibrations of a particle. An appropriate variable, such as a distance x or an angle u, is chosen to define the position of the body or system of bodies, and an equation relating this variable and its second derivative with respect to t is written. If the equation obtained is of the same form as (19.6), i.e., if we have ẍ 1 v2n x 5 0 or ü 1 v2n u 5 0 (19.21) the vibration considered is a simple harmonic motion. The period and natural frequency of the vibration can then be obtained by identifying vn and substituting its value into Eqs. (19.13) and (19.14). In general, a simple way to obtain one of Eqs. (19.21) is to express that the system of the external forces is equivalent to the system of the effective forces by drawing a free-body-diagram equation for an arbitrary value of the variable and writing the appropriate equation of motion. We recall that our goal should be the determination bee29400_ch19_1212-1287.indd Page 1229 12/16/08 12:39:57 PM user-s172 of the coefficient of the variable x or u, not the determination of the variable itself or of the derivative ẍ or ü. Setting this coefficient equal to v2n, we obtain the natural circular frequency vn, from which tn and fn can be determined. The method we have outlined can be used to analyze vibrations which are truly represented by a simple harmonic motion, or vibrations of small amplitude which can be approximated by a simple harmonic motion. As an example, let us determine the period of the small oscillations of a square plate of side 2b which is suspended from the midpoint O of one of its sides (Fig. 19.5a). We consider the plate in an arbitrary position defined by the angle u that the line OG forms with the vertical and draw a free-body-diagram equation to express that the weight W of the plate and the components Rx and Ry of the reaction at O are equivalent to the vectors ma t and man and to the couple IA (Fig. 19.5b). Since the angular velocity and angular acceleration of the plate are equal, respectively, to u̇ and ü, the magnitudes of the two vectors are, respectively, mbü and mbu̇ 2, while the moment of the couple is I ü. In previous applications of this method (Chap. 16), we tried whenever possible to assume the correct sense for the acceleration. Here, however, we must assume the same positive sense for u and ü in order to obtain an equation of the form (19.21). Consequently, the angular acceleration ü will be assumed positive counterclockwise, even though this assumption is obviously unrealistic. Equating moments about O, we write 1l Noting that I 5 2W(b sin u) 5 (mbü)b 1 Iü 1 2 12 m[(2b) 1 (2b)2] 5 23 mb2 and W 5 mg, we obtain 3g ü 1 sin u 5 0 5b /Volumes/204/MHDQ077/work%0/indd%0 19.5 Free Vibrations of Rigid Bodies O b b A 2b (a) Ry O Rx b q = 2p 5b 5 2p A 3g vn O m⎯ a n (19.22) m⎯ a t G ⎯Ia (19.23) Comparison with (19.21) shows that the equation obtained is that of a simple harmonic motion and that the natural circular frequency vn of the oscillations is equal to (3g/5b)1/2. Substituting into (19.13), we find that the period of the oscillations is tn 5 G W For oscillations of small amplitude, we can replace sin u by u, expressed in radians, and write 3g u50 ü 1 5b 5b 3 G (19.24) The result obtained is valid only for oscillations of small amplitude. A more accurate description of the motion of the plate is obtained by comparing Eqs. (19.16) and (19.22). We note that the two equations are identical if we choose l equal to 5b/3. This means that the plate will oscillate as a simple pendulum of length l 5 5b/3 and the results of Sec. 19.4 can be used to correct the value of the period given in (19.24). The point A of the plate located on line OG at a distance l 5 5b/3 from O is defined as the center of oscillation corresponding to O (Fig. 19.5a). (b) Fig. 19.5 1229 bee29400_ch19_1212-1287.indd Page 1230 12/16/08 12:39:58 PM user-s172 /Volumes/204/MHDQ077/work%0/indd%0 SAMPLE PROBLEM 19.2 A cylinder of weight W and radius r is suspended from a looped cord as shown. One end of the cord is attached directly to a rigid support, while the other end is attached to a spring of constant k. Determine the period and natural frequency of the vibrations of the cylinder. B r SOLUTION B d a Kinematics of Motion. We express the linear displacement and the acceleration of the cylinder in terms of the angular displacement u. Choosing the positive sense clockwise and measuring the displacements from the equilibrium position, we write B ⎯x ⎯a q x 5 ru d 5 2 x 5 2ru A 5 üi a 5 ra 5 rü (1) a 5 rü w Equations of Motion. The system of external forces acting on the cylinder consists of the weight W and of the forces T1 and T2 exerted by the cord. We express that this system is equivalent to the system of effective forces represented by the vector ma attached at G and the couple IA. 1ioMA 5 o(MA)eff: 2r T2 T1 A G W = A G ⎯Ia m⎯ a Wr 2 T2(2r) 5 mar 1 Ia (2) When the cylinder is in its position of equilibrium, the tension in the cord is T 0 5 12 W. We note that for an angular displacement u, the magnitude of T2 is 1 1 (3) T2 5 T0 1 kd 5 2 W 1 kd 5 2 W 1 k(2ru) Substituting from (1) and (3) into (2), and recalling that I 5 Wr 2 1 (2 W 1 2kru)(2r) 5 m(rü)r 1 8 k ü 1 u50 3m 1 2 2 mr , we write 1 2 2 mr ü The motion is seen to be simple harmonic, and we have v2n 5 1230 8 k 3m 8 k A3 m 2p tn 5 vn vn fn 5 2p vn 5 3m A8 k 1 8 k fn 5 2p A 3 m tn 5 2p ◀ ◀ bee29400_ch19_1212-1287.indd Page 1231 12/16/08 12:39:59 PM user-s172 /Volumes/204/MHDQ077/work%0/indd%0 SAMPLE PROBLEM 19.3 A circular disk, weighing 20 lb and of radius 8 in., is suspended from a wire as shown. The disk is rotated (thus twisting the wire) and then released; the period of the torsional vibration is observed to be 1.13 s. A gear is then suspended from the same wire, and the period of torsional vibration for the gear is observed to be 1.93 s. Assuming that the moment of the couple exerted by the wire is proportional to the angle of twist, determine (a) the torsional spring constant of the wire, (b) the centroidal moment of inertia of the gear, (c) the maximum angular velocity reached by the gear if it is rotated through 90° and released. 8 in. SOLUTION a. Vibration of Disk. Denoting by u the angular displacement of the disk, we express that the magnitude of the couple exerted by the wire is M 5 Ku, where K is the torsional spring constant of the wire. Since this couple must be equivalent to the couple IA representing the effective forces of the disk, we write .. a=q O q 1loMO 5 o(MO)eff: 1Ku 5 2I ü ü 1 K u50 I The motion is seen to be simple harmonic, and we have v2n 5 O M = Kq = .. ⎯Ia =⎯I q O K I tn 5 2p vn tn 5 2p I BK (1) For the disk, we have tn 5 1.13 s I 5 12 mr2 5 2 1 20 lb 8 a b a ftb 5 0.138 lb ? ft ? s2 2 32.2 ft/s2 12 Substituting into (1), we obtain 1.13 5 2p 0.138 A K K 5 4.27 lb ? ft/rad ◀ b. Vibration of Gear. Since the period of vibration of the gear is 1.93 s and K 5 4.27 lb · ft/rad, Eq. (1) yields 1.93 5 2p I B 4.27 c. Maximum Angular Velocity of Gear. monic, we have u 5 um sin vnt Igear 5 0.403 lb ? ft ? s2 ◀ Since the motion is simple har- v 5 umvn cos vnt vm 5 umvn Recalling that um 5 90° 5 1.571 rad and t 5 1.93 s, we write vm 5 umvn 5 um a 2p 2p b 5 (1.571 rad) a b t 1.93 s vm 5 5.11 rad/s ◀ 1231 bee29400_ch19_1212-1287.indd Page 1232 12/16/08 12:40:00 PM user-s172 /Volumes/204/MHDQ077/work%0/indd%0 SOLVING PROBLEMS ON YOUR OWN I n this lesson you saw that a rigid body, or a system of rigid bodies, whose position can be defined by a single coordinate x or u, will execute a simple harmonic motion if the differential equation obtained by applying Newton’s second law is of the form ẍ 1 v2nx 5 0 or ü 1 v2nu 5 0 (19.21) Your goal should be to determine vn, from which you can obtain the period tn and the natural frequency fn. Taking into account the initial conditions, you can then write an equation of the form x 5 xm sin (vnt 1 f) (19.10) where x should be replaced by u if a rotation is involved. To solve the problems in this lesson, you will follow these steps: 1. Choose a coordinate which will measure the displacement of the body from its equilibrium position. You will find that many of the problems in this lesson involve the rotation of a body about a fixed axis and that the angle measuring the rotation of the body from its equilibrium position is the most convenient coordinate to use. In problems involving the general plane motion of a body, where a coordinate x (and possibly a coordinate y) is used to define the position of the mass center G of the body, and a coordinate u is used to measure its rotation about G, find kinematic relations which will allow you to express x (and y) in terms of u [Sample Prob. 19.2]. 2. Draw a free-body-diagram equation to express that the system of the external forces is equivalent to the system of the effective forces, which consists of the vector ma and the couple IA, where a 5 ẍ and a 5 ü. Be sure that each applied force or couple is drawn in a direction consistent with the assumed displacement and that the senses of a and A are, respectively, those in which the coordinates x and u are increasing. 1232 bee29400_ch19_1212-1287.indd Page 1233 12/16/08 12:40:05 PM user-s172 /Volumes/204/MHDQ077/work%0/indd%0 3. Write the differential equations of motion by equating the sums of the components of the external and effective forces in the x and y directions and the sums of their moments about a given point. If necessary, use the kinematic relations developed in step 1 to obtain equations involving only the coordinate u. If u is a small angle, replace sin u by u and cos u by 1, if these functions appear in your equations. Eliminating any unknown reactions, you will obtain an equation of the type of Eqs. (19.21). Note that in problems involving a body rotating about a fixed axis, you can immediately obtain such an equation by equating the moments of the external and effective forces about the fixed axis. 4. Comparing the equation you have obtained with one of Eqs. (19.21), you can identify v2n and, thus, determine the natural circular frequency vn. Remember that the object of your analysis is not to solve the differential equation you have obtained, but to identify v2n. 5. Determine the amplitude and the phase angle F by substituting the value obtained for vn and the initial values of the coordinate and its first derivative into Eq. (19.10) and the equation obtained by differentiating (19.10) with respect to t. From Eq. (19.10) and the two equations obtained by differentiating (19.10) twice with respect to t, and using the kinematic relations developed in step 1, you will be able to determine the position, velocity, and acceleration of any point of the body at any given time. 6. In problems involving torsional vibrations, the torsional spring constant K is expressed in N ? m/rad or lb ? ft/rad. The product of K and the angle of twist u, expressed in radians, yields the moment of the restoring couple, which should be equated to the sum of the moments of the effective forces or couples about the axis of rotation [Sample Prob. 19.3]. 1233 bee29400_ch19_1212-1287.indd Page 1234 12/16/08 12:40:10 PM user-s172 /Volumes/204/MHDQ077/work%0/indd%0 PROBLEMS 19.37 The 5-kg uniform rod AC is attached to springs of constant B A C k 5 500 N/m at B and k 5 620 N/m at C, which can act in tension or compression. If the end C of the rod is depressed slightly and released, determine (a) the frequency of vibration, (b) the amplitude of the motion of point C, knowing that the maximum velocity of that point is 0.9 m/s. 19.38 The uniform rod shown weighs 15 lb and is attached to a spring of constant k 5 4 lb/in. If end B of the rod is depressed 0.4 in. and released, determine (a) the period of vibration, (b) the maximum velocity of end B. 0.7 m 1.4 m Fig. P19.37 C A B b = 18 in. 30 in. Fig. P19.38 19.39 A 30-lb uniform cylinder can roll without sliding on a 15°-incline. B k = 30 lb/in. A 5 in. O A belt is attached to the rim of the cylinder, and a spring holds the cylinder at rest in the position shown. If the center of the cylinder is moved 2 in. down the incline and released, determine (a) the period of vibration, (b) the maximum acceleration of the center of the cylinder. 19.40 A 15-lb slender rod AB is riveted to a 12-lb uniform disk as shown. 15° Fig. P19.39 A belt is attached to the rim of the disk and to a spring which holds the rod at rest in the position shown. If end A of the rod is moved 0.75 in. down and released, determine (a) the period of vibration, (b) the maximum velocity of end A. 36 in. 10 in. A B C k = 30 lb/in. D Fig. P19.40 1234 bee29400_ch19_1212-1287.indd Page 1235 12/16/08 12:40:13 PM user-s172 /Volumes/204/MHDQ077/work%0/indd%0 Problems 19.41 An 8-kg uniform rod AB is hinged to a fixed support at A and is attached by means of pins B and C to a 12-kg disk of radius 400 mm. A spring attached at D holds the rod at rest in the position shown. If point B is moved down 25 mm and released, determine (a) the period of vibration, (b) the maximum velocity of point B. 19.42 Solve Prob. 19.41, assuming that pin C is removed and that the k = 800 N/m disk can rotate freely about pin B. 19.43 A belt is placed around the rim of a 240-kg flywheel and attached as shown to two springs, each of constant k 5 15 kN/m. If end C of the belt is pulled 40 mm down and released, the period of vibration of the flywheel is observed to be 0.5 s. Knowing that the initial tension in the belt is sufficient to prevent slipping, determine (a) the maximum angular velocity of the flywheel, (b) the centroidal radius of gyration of the flywheel. 19.44 A 75-mm-radius hole is cut in a 200-mm-radius uniform disk which is attached to a frictionless pin at its geometric center O. Determine (a) the period of small oscillations of the disk, (b) the length of a simple pendulum which has the same period. D A 400 mm C B 600 mm 1200 mm Fig. P19.41 A B 75 mm C 100 mm 200 mm O 450 mm Fig. P19.44 Fig. P19.43 19.45 Two small weights w are attached at A and B to the rim of a uni- form disk of radius r and weight W. Denoting by t0 the period of small oscillations when b 5 0, determine the angle b for which the period of small oscillations is 2t0. r C B A b b Fig. P19.45 and P19.46 19.46 Two 0.1-lb weights are attached at A and B to the rim of a 3-lb uniform disk of radius r 5 4 in. Determine the frequency of small oscillations when b 5 60°. 1235 bee29400_ch19_1212-1287.indd Page 1236 1236 12/16/08 12:40:15 PM user-s172 /Volumes/204/MHDQ077/work%0/indd%0 19.47 For the uniform square plate of side b 5 300 mm, determine Mechanical Vibrations (a) the period of small oscillations if the plate is suspended as shown, (b) the distance c from O to a point A from which the plate should be suspended for the period to be a minimum. O c 19.48 A connecting rod is supported by a knife-edge at point A; the period of its small oscillations is observed to be 0.87 s. The rod is then inverted and supported by a knife edge at point B and the period of its small oscillations is observed to be 0.78 s. Knowing that ra 1 rb 5 10 in., determine (a) the location of the mass center G, (b) the centroidal radius of gyration k. A G A b b ra Fig. P19.47 G rb B Fig. P19.48 19.49 For the uniform equilateral triangular plate of side l 5 300 mm, determine the period of small oscillations if the plate is suspended from (a) one of its vertices, (b) the midpoint of one of its sides. O 19.50 A uniform disk of radius r 5 250 mm is attached at A to a 650-mm l rod AB of negligible mass which can rotate freely in a vertical plane about B. Determine the period of small oscillations (a) if the disk is free to rotate in a bearing at A, (b) if the rod is riveted to the disk at A. l B Fig. P19.49 q r = 250 mm A A d L Fig. P19.50 C 19.51 A small collar weighing 2 lb is rigidly attached to a 6-lb uniform B Fig. P19.51 rod of length L 5 3 ft. Determine (a) the distance d to maximize the frequency of oscillation when the rod is given a small initial displacement, (b) the corresponding period of oscillation. bee29400_ch19_1212-1287.indd Page 1237 12/16/08 12:40:16 PM user-s172 /Volumes/204/MHDQ077/work%0/indd%0 Problems 19.52 A compound pendulum is defined as a rigid slab which oscillates about a fixed point O, called the center of suspension. Show that the period of oscillation of a compound pendulum is equal to the period of a simple pendulum of length OA, where the distance from A to the mass center G is GA 5 k2/r. Point A is defined as the center of oscillation and coincides with the center of percussion defined in Prob. 17.66. ⎯r O G A k A Fig. P19.52 and P19.53 19.53 A rigid slab oscillates about a fixed point O. Show that the smallest period of oscillation occurs when the distance r from point O to the mass center G is equal to k. 19.54 Show that if the compound pendulum of Prob. 19.52 is suspended from A instead of O, the period of oscillation is the same as before and the new center of oscillation is located at O. 250 mm 40 mm G C 19.55 The 8-kg uniform bar AB is hinged at C and is attached at A to a spring of constant k 5 500 N/m. If end A is given a small displacement and released, determine (a) the frequency of small oscillations, (b) the smallest value of the spring constant k for which oscillations will occur. B Fig. P19.55 19.56 A 45-lb uniform square plate is suspended from a pin located at the midpoint A of one of its 1.2-ft edges and is attached to springs, each of constant k 5 8 lb/in. If corner B is given a small displacement and released, determine the frequency of the resulting vibration. Assume that each spring can act in either tension or compression. A A L G k C B Fig. P19.56 C B k D k k 19.57 Two uniform rods, each of mass m 5 12 kg and length L 5 800 mm, are welded together to form the assembly shown. Knowing that the constant of each spring is k 5 500 N/m and that end A is given a small displacement and released, determine the frequency of the resulting motion. L 2 Fig. P19.57 L 2 1237 bee29400_ch19_1212-1287.indd Page 1238 1238 12/16/08 12:40:17 PM user-s172 /Volumes/204/MHDQ077/work%0/indd%0 19.58 The rod ABC of total mass m is bent as shown and is supported Mechanical Vibrations in a vertical plane by a pin at B and by a spring of constant k at C. If end C is given a small displacement and released, determine the frequency of the resulting motion in terms of m, L, and k. A 19.59 A uniform disk of radius r 5 250 mm is attached at A to a 650-mm rod AB of negligible mass which can rotate freely in a vertical plane about B. If the rod is displaced 2° from the position shown and released, determine the magnitude of the maximum velocity of point A, assuming that the disk (a) is free to rotate in a bearing at A, (b) is riveted to the rod at A. L B C k B q L r = 250 mm Fig. P19.58 A Fig. P19.59 19.60 A 6-lb slender rod is suspended from a steel wire which is known to have a torsional spring constant K 5 1.5 ft ? lb/rad. If the rod is rotated through 180° about the vertical and released, determine (a) the period of oscillation, (b) the maximum velocity of end A of the rod. B G A 4 in. 4 in. 19.61 A homogeneous wire bent to form the figure shown is attached to a pin support at A. Knowing that r 5 220 mm and that point B is pushed down 20 mm and released, determine the magnitude of the velocity of B, 8 s later. Fig. P19.60 A B r Fig. P19.61 and P19.62 19.62 A homogeneous wire bent to form the figure shown is attached to a pin support at A. Knowing that r 5 16 in. and that point B is pushed down 1.5 in. and released, determine the magnitude of the acceleration of B, 10 s later. bee29400_ch19_1212-1287.indd Page 1239 12/16/08 12:40:17 PM user-s172 /Volumes/204/MHDQ077/work%0/indd%0 Problems 19.63 A uniform disk of radius r 5 120 mm is welded at its center to two elastic rods of equal length with fixed ends at A and B. Knowing that the disk rotates through an 8° angle when a 500-mN ? m couple is applied to the disk and that it oscillates with a period of 1.3 s when the couple is removed, determine (a) the mass of the disk, (b) the period of vibration if one of the rods is removed. B 19.64 A 10-lb uniform rod CD of length l 5 2.2 ft is welded at C to two elastic rods, which have fixed ends at A and B and are known to have a combined torsional spring constant K 5 18 lb · ft/rad. Determine the period of small oscillations, if the equilibrium position of CD is (a) vertical as shown, (b) horizontal. A Fig. P19.63 B C A l D Fig. P19.64 19.65 A 1.8-kg uniform plate in the shape of an equilateral triangle is suspended at its center of gravity from a steel wire which is known to have a torsional constant K 5 35 mN ? m/rad. If the plate is rotated 360° about the vertical and then released, determine (a) the period of oscillation, (b) the maximum velocity of one of the vertices of the triangle. G 150 mm Fig. P19.65 19.66 A horizontal platform P is held by several rigid bars which are connected to a vertical wire. The period of oscillation of the platform is found to be 2.2 s when the platform is empty and 3.8 s when an object A of unknown moment of inertia is placed on the platform with its mass center directly above the center of the plate. Knowing that the wire has a torsional constant K 5 20 lb ? ft/rad, determine the centroidal moment of inertia of object A. A P Fig. P19.66 1239 bee29400_ch19_1212-1287.indd Page 1240 1240 12/16/08 12:40:18 PM user-s172 /Volumes/204/MHDQ077/work%0/indd%0 19.67 A thin rectangular plate of sides a and b is suspended from four Mechanical Vibrations vertical wires of the same length l. Determine the period of small oscillations of the plate when (a) it is rotated through a small angle about a vertical axis through its mass center G, (b) it is given a small horizontal displacement in a direction perpendicular to AB, (c) it is given a small horizontal displacement in a direction perpendicular to BC. D l C G A K1 A a b B Fig. P19.67 B K2 C r 19.68 A circular disk of radius r 5 0.8 m is suspended at its center C from wires AB and BC soldered together at B. The torsional spring constants of the wires are K 1 5 100 N ? m/rad for AB and K 2 5 50 N ? m/rad for BC. If the period of oscillation is 0.5 s about the axis AC, determine the mass of the disk. Fig. P19.68 19.6 APPLICATION OF THE PRINCIPLE OF CONSERVATION OF ENERGY We saw in Sec. 19.2 that when a particle of mass m is in simple harmonic motion, the resultant F of the forces exerted on the particle has a magnitude proportional to the displacement x measured from the position of equilibrium O and is directed toward O; we write F 5 2kx. Referring to Sec. 13.6, we note that F is a conservative force and that the corresponding potential energy is V 5 12 kx2, where V is assumed equal to zero in the equilibrium position x 5 0. Since the velocity of the particle is equal to ẋ, its kinetic energy is . T 5 12 mx2 and we can express that the total energy of the particle is conserved by writing .2 1 2 1 T 1 V 5 constant 2 mx 1 2 kx 5 constant Dividing through by m/2 and recalling from Sec. 19.2 that k/m 5 v2n, where vn is the natural circular frequency of the vibration, we have ẋ2 1 v2n x2 5 constant (19.25) bee29400_ch19_1212-1287.indd Page 1241 12/16/08 12:40:19 PM user-s172 Equation (19.25) is characteristic of a simple harmonic motion, since it can be obtained from Eq. (19.6) by multiplying both terms by 2ẋ and integrating. The principle of conservation of energy provides a convenient way for determining the period of vibration of a rigid body or of a system of rigid bodies possessing a single degree of freedom, once it has been established that the motion of the system is a simple harmonic motion or that it can be approximated by a simple harmonic motion. Choosing an appropriate variable, such as a distance x or an angle u, we consider two particular positions of the system: /Volumes/204/MHDQ077/work%0/indd%0 19.6 Application of the Principle of Conservation of Energy . q=0 O qm b cos qm b G1 Datum W 1. The displacement of the system is maximum; we have T1 5 0, and V1 can be expressed in terms of the amplitude xm or um (choosing V 5 0 in the equilibrium position). 2. The system passes through its equilibrium position; we have V2 5 0, and T2 can be expressed in terms of the maximum velocity ẋm or the maximum angular velocity u˙ m. We then express that the total energy of the system is conserved and write T1 1 V1 5 T2 1 V2. Recalling from (19.15) that for simple harmonic motion the maximum velocity is equal to the product of the amplitude and of the natural circular frequency vn, we find that the equation obtained can be solved for vn. As an example, let us consider again the square plate of Sec. 19.5. In the position of maximum displacement (Fig. 19.6a), we have T1 5 0 V1 5 W(b 2 b cos um) 5 Wb(1 2 cos um) or, since 1 2 cos um 5 2 sin2 (um /2) < 2(um /2)2 5 u2m /2 for oscillations of small amplitude, 1 V1 5 2 Wbu 2m T1 5 0 (19.26) As the plate passes through its position of equilibrium (Fig. 19.6b), its velocity is maximum and we have . . V2 5 0 T2 5 12 mv 2m 1 12 Iv 2m 5 12 mb2u 2m 1 12 Iu 2m or, recalling from Sec. 19.5 that I 5 23 mb2, . T2 5 12 ( 53 mb2 )u 2m V2 5 0 (19.27) Substituting from (19.26) and (19.27) into T1 1 V1 5 T2 1 V2, and noting that the maximum velocity u̇ m is equal to the product umvn, we write 1 2 2 Wbu m 5 12 ( 53 mb2 )u2mv 2n (19.28) 2p 5b 5 2p A 3g vn (19.29) which yields v 2n 5 3g/5b and tn 5 as previously obtained. (a) O . qm b G2 Datum W (b) Fig. 19.6 1241 bee29400_ch19_1212-1287.indd Page 1242 12/16/08 12:40:20 PM user-s172 /Volumes/204/MHDQ077/work%0/indd%0 SAMPLE PROBLEM 19.4 R Determine the period of small oscillations of a cylinder of radius r which rolls without slipping inside a curved surface of radius R. r SOLUTION O R R – r qm (R – r) cos q m G r h G Position 1 W Position 2 Datum We denote by u the angle which line OG forms with the vertical. Since the cylinder rolls without slipping, we may apply the principle of conservation of energy between position 1, where u 5 um, and position 2, where u 5 0. Position 1 Kinetic Energy. Since the velocity of the cylinder is zero, T1 5 0. Potential Energy. Choosing a datum as shown and denoting by W the weight of the cylinder, we have V1 5 Wh 5 W(R 2 r)(1 2 cos u) W Noting that for small oscillations (1 2 cos u) 5 2 sin2 (u/2) < u2/2, we have V 1 5 W(R 2 r) O Position 2. Denoting by u̇ m the angular velocity of line OG as the cylinder passes through position 2, and observing that point C is the instantaneous center of rotation of the cylinder, we write . qm . vm 5 (R 2 r)u m wm Position 2 G r C u2m 2 ⎯ vm vm 5 vm R2r . um 5 r r Kinetic Energy T 2 5 12 mv 2m 1 12 Iv 2m . R 2 r 2 .2 5 12 m(R 2 r) 2u 2m 1 12 ( 12 mr2 )a b um r . 3 2 2 5 4 m(R 2 r) u m Potential Energy V2 5 0 Conservation of Energy T1 1 V1 5 T2 1 V2 . u2m 0 1 W(R 2 r) 5 34 m(R 2 r) 2u 2m 1 0 2 Since u̇ m 5 vnum and W 5 mg, we write mg(R 2 r) 1242 u2m 5 34 m(R 2 r) 2 (v num ) 2 2 2p tn 5 vn 2 g 3R2r 3R2r tn 5 2p A2 g v 2n 5 ◀ bee29400_ch19_1212-1287.indd Page 1243 12/16/08 8:48:23 PM user-s172 /Volumes/204/MHDQ077/work%0/indd%0 SOLVING PROBLEMS ON YOUR OWN I n the problems which follow you will be asked to use the principle of conservation of energy to determine the period or natural frequency of the simple harmonic motion of a particle or rigid body. Assuming that you choose an angle u to define the position of the system (with u 5 0 in the equilibrium position), as you will in most of the problems in this lesson, you will express that the total energy of the system is conserved, T1 1 V1 5 T2 1 V2, between the position 1 of maximum displacement (u1 5 um, u̇1 5 0) and the position 2 of maximum velocity (u̇2 5 u̇ m, u2 5 0). It follows that T1 and V2 will both be zero, and the energy equation will reduce to V1 5 T2, where V1 and T2 are homogeneous quadratic expressions in um and u̇ m, respectively. Recalling that, for a simple harmonic motion, u̇ m 5 umvn and substituting this product into the energy equation, you will obtain, after reduction, an equation that you can solve for v2n. Once you have determined the natural circular frequency vn, you can obtain the period tn and the natural frequency fn of the vibration. The steps that you should take are as follows: 1. Calculate the potential energy V1 of the system in its position of maximum displacement. Draw a sketch of the system in its position of maximum displacement and express the potential energy of all the forces involved (internal as well as external) in terms of the maximum displacement x m or um. a. The potential energy associated with the weight W of a body is Vg 5 Wy, where y is the elevation of the center of gravity G of the body above its equilibrium position. If the problem you are solving involves the oscillation of a rigid body about a horizontal axis through a point O located at a distance b from G (Fig. 19.6), express y in terms of the angle u that the line OG forms with the vertical: y 5 b(1 2 cos u). But, for small values of u, you can replace this expression with y 5 12 bu2 [Sample Prob. 19.4]. Therefore, when u reaches its maximum value um, and for oscillations of small amplitude, you can express Vg as Vg 5 12 Wbu2m Note that if G is located above O in its equilibrium position (instead of below O, as we have assumed), the vertical displacement y will be negative and should be approximated as y 5 2 12 bu2, which will result in a negative value for Vg. In the absence of other forces, the equilibrium position will be unstable, and the system will not oscillate. (See, for instance, Prob. 19.91.) b. The potential energy associated with the elastic force exerted by a spring is V e 5 12 kx2, where k is the constant of the spring and x its deflection. In problems involving the rotation of a body about an axis, you will generally have x 5 au, where a is the distance from the axis of rotation to the point of the body (continued) 1243 bee29400_ch19_1212-1287.indd Page 1244 12/16/08 12:40:25 PM user-s172 /Volumes/204/MHDQ077/work%0/indd%0 where the spring is attached, and where u is the angle of rotation. Therefore, when x reaches its maximum value xm and u reaches its maximum value um, you can express Ve as Ve 5 12 kx2m 5 12 ka2u2m c. The potential energy V1 of the system in its position of maximum displacement is obtained by adding the various potential energies that you have computed. It will be equal to the product of a constant and u2m. 2. Calculate the kinetic energy T2 of the system in its position of maximum velocity. Note that this position is also the equilibrium position of the system. a. If the system consists of a single rigid body, the kinetic energy T2 of the system will be the sum of the kinetic energy associated with the motion of the mass center G of the body and the kinetic energy associated with the rotation of the body about G. You will write, therefore, T2 5 12 mv 2m 1 12 Iv 2m Assuming that the position of the body has been defined by an angle u, express vm and vm in terms of the rate of change u̇ m of u as the body passes through its equilibrium position. The kinetic energy of the body will thus be expressed as the product of a constant and u̇ 2m. Note that if u measures the rotation of the body about its mass center, as was the case for the plate of Fig. 19.6, then vm 5 u̇ m. In other cases, however, the kinematics of the motion should be used to derive a relation between vm and u̇ m [Sample Prob. 19.4]. b. If the system consists of several rigid bodies, repeat the above computation for each of the bodies, using the same coordinate u, and add the results obtained. 3. Equate the potential energy V1 of the system to its kinetic energy T2, V1 5 T2 and, recalling the first of Eqs. (19.15), replace u̇ m in the right-hand term by the product of the amplitude um and the circular frequency vn. Since both terms now contain the factor u2m, this factor can be canceled and the resulting equation can be solved for the circular frequency vn. 1244 bee29400_ch19_1212-1287.indd Page 1245 12/16/08 12:40:27 PM user-s172 /Volumes/204/MHDQ077/work%0/indd%0 PROBLEMS All problems are to be solved using the method of Sec. 19.6. R 19.69 Determine the period of small oscillations of a small particle which moves without friction inside a cylindrical surface of radius R. 19.70 A 14-oz sphere A and a 10-oz sphere C are attached to the ends of a rod AC of negligible weight which can rotate in a vertical plane about an axis at B. Determine the period of small oscillations of the rod. Fig. P19.69 19.71 A 1.8-kg collar A is attached to a spring of constant 800 N/m and can slide without friction on a horizontal rod. If the collar is moved 70 mm to the left from its equilibrium position and released, determine the maximum velocity and maximum acceleration of the collar during the resulting motion. A 5 in. B A 8 in. Fig. P19.71 and P19.72 C 19.72 A 3-lb collar A is attached to a spring of constant 5 lb/in. and can slide without friction on a horizontal rod. The collar is at rest when it is struck with a mallet and given an initial velocity of 35 in./s. Determine the amplitude of the resulting motion and the maximum acceleration of the collar. Fig. P19.70 19.73 A uniform rod AB can rotate in a vertical plane about a horizontal A axis at C located at a distance c above the mass center G of the rod. For small oscillations determine the value of c for which the frequency of the motion will be maximum. 19.74 A homogeneous wire of length 2l is bent as shown and allowed to C c oscillate about a frictionless pin at B. Denoting by t0 the period of small oscillations when b 5 0, determine the angle b for which the period of small oscillations is 2 t0. G l B B l Fig. P19.73 l A C b b Fig. P19.74 1245 bee29400_ch19_1212-1287.indd Page 1246 1246 12/16/08 12:40:30 PM user-s172 /Volumes/204/MHDQ077/work%0/indd%0 19.75 The inner rim of an 85-lb flywheel is placed on a knife edge, and Mechanical Vibrations the period of its small oscillations is found to be 1.26 s. Determine the centroidal moment of inertia of the flywheel. 19.76 A connecting rod is supported by a knife edge at point A; the 14 in. period of its small oscillations is observed to be 1.03 s. Knowing that the distance ra is 150 mm, determine the centroidal radius of gyration of the connecting rod. A Fig. P19.75 ra A G rb B L Fig. P19.76 B C k 19.77 The rod ABC of total mass m is bent as shown and is supported in a vertical plane by a pin at B and a spring of constant k at C. If end C is given a small displacement and released, determine the frequency of the resulting motion in terms of m, L, and k. 19.78 A 15-lb uniform cylinder can roll without sliding on an incline and is attached to a spring AB as shown. If the center of the cylinder is moved 0.4 in. down the incline and released, determine (a) the period of vibration, (b) the maximum velocity of the center of the cylinder. L Fig. P19.77 A k = 4.5 lb/in. l C B B 4 in. A b = 14° D Fig. P19.78 k k 19.79 Two uniform rods, each of weight W 5 1.2 lb and length l 5 8 in., l 2 Fig. P19.79 l 2 are welded together to form the assembly shown. Knowing that the constant of each spring is k 5 0.6 lb/in. and that end A is given a small displacement and released, determine the frequency of the resulting motion. bee29400_ch19_1212-1287.indd Page 1247 12/16/08 12:40:31 PM user-s172 /Volumes/204/MHDQ077/work%0/indd%0 Problems 19.80 A slender 8-kg rod AB of length l 5 600 mm is connected to two collars of negligible mass. Collar A is attached to a spring of constant k 5 1.2 kN/m and can slide on a vertical rod, while collar B can slide freely on a horizontal rod. Knowing that the system is in equilibrium and that u 5 40°, determine the period of vibration if collar B is given a small displacement and released. A l 19.81 A slender rod AB of length l 5 600 mm and negligible mass is connected to two collars, each of mass 8 kg. Collar A is attached to a spring of constant k 5 1.2 kN/m and can slide on a vertical rod, while collar B can slide freely on a horizontal rod. Knowing that the system is in equilibrium and that u 5 40°, determine the period of vibration if collar A is given a small displacement and released. 19.82 A 3-kg slender rod AB is bolted to a 5-kg uniform disk. A spring of k q B Fig. P19.80 and P19.81 constant 280 N/m is attached to the disk and is unstretched in the position shown. If end B of the rod is given a small displacement and released, determine the period of vibration of the system. 80 mm A A 5 in. 300 mm B B 8 in. Fig. P19.82 19.83 A 14-oz sphere A and a 10-oz sphere C are attached to the ends of a 20-oz rod AC which can rotate in a vertical plane about an axis at B. Determine the period of small oscillations of the rod. C Fig. P19.83 19.84 Three identical rods are connected as shown. If b 5 34 l, determine the frequency of small oscillations of the system. 19.85 An 800-g rod AB is bolted to a 1.2-kg disk. A spring of constant k 5 12 N/m is attached to the center of the disk at A and to the wall at C. Knowing that the disk rolls without sliding, determine the period of small oscillations of the system. r = 250 mm A k C l Fig. P19.84 600 mm B Fig. P19.85 b l 1247 bee29400_ch19_1212-1287.indd Page 1248 1248 12/16/08 12:40:31 PM user-s172 /Volumes/204/MHDQ077/work%0/indd%0 19.86 and 19.87 Mechanical Vibrations Two uniform rods AB and CD, each of length l and mass m, are attached to gears as shown. Knowing that the mass of gear C is m and that the mass of gear A is 4m, determine the period of small oscillations of the system. B l 2r 2r r A C r A C l l B D D Fig. P19.87 Fig. P19.86 19.88 A 10-lb uniform rod CD is welded at C to a shaft of negligible B 1 ft C A mass which is welded to the centers of two 20-lb uniform disks A and B. Knowing that the disks roll without sliding, determine the period of small oscillations of the system. 19.89 Four bars of the same mass m and equal length l are connected 1 ft by pins at A, B, C, and D and can move in a horizontal plane. The bars are attached to four springs of the same constant k and are in equilibrium in the position shown (u 5 45°). Determine the period of vibration if corners A and C are given small and equal displacements toward each other and released. 3 ft D Fig. P19.88 k B q k A l 6 in. 6 in. A B 18 in. Fig. P19.90 D C k l k 4 in. Fig. P19.89 19.90 The 20-lb rod AB is attached to two 8-lb disks as shown. Knowing that the disks roll without sliding, determine the frequency of small oscillations of the system. bee29400_ch19_1212-1287.indd Page 1249 12/16/08 12:40:32 PM user-s172 /Volumes/204/MHDQ077/work%0/indd%0 Problems 19.91 An inverted pendulum consisting of a sphere of weight W and a rigid bar ABC of length l and negligible weight is supported by a pin and bracket at C. A spring of constant k is attached to the bar at B and is undeformed when the bar is in the vertical position shown. Determine (a) the frequency of small oscillations, (b) the smallest value of a for which these oscillations will occur. k 1249 A B 19.92 For the inverted pendulum of Prob. 19.91 and for given values of l k, a, and l, it is observed that f 5 1.5 Hz when W 5 2 lb and that f 5 0.8 Hz when W 5 4 lb. Determine the largest value of W for which small oscillations will occur. a 19.93 A uniform rod of length L is supported by a ball-and-socket joint at A and by a vertical wire CD. Derive an expression for the period of oscillation of the rod if end B is given a small horizontal displacement and then released. C Fig. P19.91 and P19.92 D h A C B b L Fig. P19.93 19.94 A 2-kg uniform rod ABC is supported by a pin at B and is attached to a spring at C. It is connected at A to a 2-kg block DE which is attached to a spring and can roll without friction. Knowing that each spring can act in tension or compression, determine the frequency of small oscillations of the system when the rod is rotated through a small angle and released. k = 50 N/m A D k = 2 lb/in. A E 600 mm 8 in. B B 300 mm C C W k = 50 N/m Fig. P19.94 D k = 1.5 lb/in. 19.95 A 1.4-lb uniform arm ABC is supported by a pin at B and is attached to a spring at A. It is connected at C to a 3-lb weight W which is attached to a spring. Knowing that each spring can act in tension or compression, determine the frequency of small oscillations of the system when the weight is given a small vertical displacement and released. 12 in. Fig. P19.95 bee29400_ch19_1212-1287.indd Page 1250 1250 12/16/08 12:40:33 PM user-s172 *19.96 Two uniform rods AB and BC, each of mass m and length l, are Mechanical Vibrations pinned together at A and are pin-connected to small rollers at B and C. A spring of constant k is attached to the pins at B and C, and the system is observed to be in equilibrium when each rod forms an angle b with the vertical. Determine the period of small oscillations when point A is given a small downward deflection and released. A b l /Volumes/204/MHDQ077/work%0/indd%0 b l *19.97 As a submerged body moves through a fluid, the particles of the fluid flow around the body and thus acquire kinetic energy. In the case of a sphere moving in an ideal fluid, the total kinetic energy acquired by the fluid is 14 rVv2 , where r is the mass density of the fluid, V is the volume of the sphere, and v is the velocity of the sphere. Consider a 500-g hollow spherical shell of radius 80 mm which is held submerged in a tank of water by a spring of constant 500 N/m. (a) Neglecting fluid friction, determine the period of vibration of the shell when it is displaced vertically and then released. (b) Solve part a, assuming that the tank is accelerated upward at the constant rate of 8 m/s2. k B C Fig. P19.96 l Fig. P19.97 r *19.98 A thin plate of length l rests on a half cylinder of radius r. Derive an expression for the period of small oscillations of the plate. Fig. P19.98 19.7 The most important vibrations from the point of view of engineering applications are the forced vibrations of a system. These vibrations occur when a system is subjected to a periodic force or when it is elastically connected to a support which has an alternating motion. Consider first the case of a body of mass m suspended from a spring and subjected to a periodic force P of magnitude P 5 Pm sin vf t, where v f is the circular frequency of P and is referred to as the forced circular frequency of the motion (Fig. 19.7). This force may be an actual external force applied to the body, or it may be a centrifugal force produced by the rotation of some unbalanced part of the body (see Sample Prob. 19.5). Denoting by x the displacement of the body measured from its equilibrium position, we write the equation of motion, T = k(dst + x) x Equilibrium = W P Fig. 19.7 P = Pm sin wf t FORCED VIBRATIONS 1woF 5 ma: .. ma = m x Pm sin vf t 1 W 2 k(dst 1 x) 5 mẍ Recalling that W 5 kdst, we have mẍ 1 kx 5 Pm sin vf t (19.30) bee29400_ch19_1212-1287.indd Page 1251 12/16/08 12:40:33 PM user-s172 Next we consider the case of a body of mass m suspended from a spring attached to a moving support whose displacement d is equal to dm sin vf t (Fig. 19.8). Measuring the displacement x of the body from the position of static equilibrium corresponding to vf t 5 0, we find that the total elongation of the spring at time t is dst 1 x 2 dm sin vf t. The equation of motion is thus 1woF 5 ma: W 2 k(dst 1 x 2 dm sin vf t) 5 mẍ /Volumes/204/MHDQ077/work%0/indd%0 19.7 Forced Vibrations dm 1251 dm sin wf t wf t wf t = 0 Recalling that W 5 kdst, we have mẍ 1 kx 5 kdm sin vf t (19.31) We note that Eqs. (19.30) and (19.31) are of the same form and that a solution of the first equation will satisfy the second if we set Pm 5 kdm. A differential equation such as (19.30) or (19.31), possessing a right-hand member different from zero, is said to be nonhomogeneous. Its general solution is obtained by adding a particular solution of the given equation to the general solution of the corresponding homogeneous equation (with right-hand member equal to zero). A particular solution of (19.30) or (19.31) can be obtained by trying a solution of the form xpart 5 xm sin vf t (19.32) Substituting xpart for x into (19.30), we find T = k(dst + x −dm sin wf t) Equilibrium x = W .. ma = mx Fig. 19.8 2mvf2xm sin vf t 1 kxm sin vf t 5 Pm sin vf t which can be solved for the amplitude, xm 5 Pm k 2 mv 2f Recalling from (19.4) that k/m 5 v2n, where vn is the natural circular frequency of the system, we write xm 5 Pm/k 1 2 (v f /v n ) 2 (19.33) Substituting from (19.32) into (19.31), we obtain in a similar way xm 5 dm 1 2 (v f /v n ) 2 (19.339) The homogeneous equation corresponding to (19.30) or (19.31) is Eq. (19.2), which defines the free vibration of the body. Its general solution, called the complementary function, was found in Sec. 19.2: xcomp 5 C1 sin vnt 1 C2 cos vnt (19.34) Photo 19.1 A seismometer operates by measuring the amount of electrical energy needed to keep a mass centered in the housing in the presence of strong ground shaking. bee29400_ch19_1212-1287.indd Page 1252 1252 12/16/08 12:40:55 PM user-s172 /Volumes/204/MHDQ077/work%0/indd%0 Adding the particular solution (19.32) to the complementary function (19.34), we obtain the general solution of Eqs. (19.30) and (19.31): Mechanical Vibrations x 5 C1 sin vnt 1 C2 cos vnt 1 xm sin vf t (19.35) We note that the vibration obtained consists of two superposed vibrations. The first two terms in Eq. (19.35) represent a free vibration of the system. The frequency of this vibration is the natural frequency of the system, which depends only upon the constant k of the spring and the mass m of the body, and the constants C1 and C2 can be determined from the initial conditions. This free vibration is also called a transient vibration, since in actual practice it will soon be damped out by friction forces (Sec. 19.9). The last term in (19.35) represents the steady-state vibration produced and maintained by the impressed force or impressed support movement. Its frequency is the forced frequency imposed by this force or movement, and its amplitude xm, defined by (19.33) or (19.339), depends upon the frequency ratio vf /vn. The ratio of the amplitude xm of the steady-state vibration to the static deflection Pm /k caused by a force Pm, or to the amplitude dm of the support movement, is called the magnification factor. From (19.33) and (19.339), we obtain Magnification factor 5 4 xm 3 Pm /k or 2 xm dm 1 0 –1 –2 –3 Fig. 19.9 1 2 wf 3 wn xm xm 1 5 5 Pm/k dm 1 2 (v f /v n ) 2 (19.36) The magnification factor has been plotted in Fig. 19.9 against the frequency ratio vf /vn. We note that when vf 5 vn, the amplitude of the forced vibration becomes infinite. The impressed force or impressed support movement is said to be in resonance with the given system. Actually, the amplitude of the vibration remains finite because of damping forces (Sec. 19.9); nevertheless, such a situation should be avoided, and the forced frequency should not be chosen too close to the natural frequency of the system. We also note that for vf , vn the coefficient of sin vf t in (19.35) is positive, while for vf . vn this coefficient is negative. In the first case the forced vibration is in phase with the impressed force or impressed support movement, while in the second case it is 180° out of phase. Finally, let us observe that the velocity and the acceleration in the steady-state vibration can be obtained by differentiating twice with respect to t the last term of Eq. (19.35). Their maximum values are given by expressions similar to those of Eqs. (19.15) of Sec. 19.2, except that these expressions now involve the amplitude and the circular frequency of the forced vibration: vm 5 xmvf am 5 xmvf2 (19.37) bee29400_ch19_1212-1287.indd Page 1253 12/16/08 12:40:59 PM user-s172 /Volumes/204/MHDQ077/work%0/indd%0 SAMPLE PROBLEM 19.5 A motor weighing 350 lb is supported by four springs, each having a constant of 750 lb/in. The unbalance of the rotor is equivalent to a weight of 1 oz located 6 in. from the axis of rotation. Knowing that the motor is constrained to move vertically, determine (a) the speed in rpm at which resonance will occur, (b) the amplitude of the vibration of the motor at a speed of 1200 rpm. SOLUTION a. Resonance Speed. The resonance speed is equal to the natural circular frequency vn (in rpm) of the free vibration of the motor. The mass of the motor and the equivalent constant of the supporting springs are 350 lb 5 10.87 lb ? s2/ft 32.2 ft/s2 k 5 4(750 lb/in.) 5 3000 lb/in. 5 36,000 lb/ft 36,000 k vn 5 5 57.5 rad/s 5 549 rpm 5 Am A 10.87 m5 Resonance speed 5 549 rpm ◀ b. Amplitude of Vibration at 1200 rpm. The angular velocity of the motor and the mass of the equivalent 1-oz weight are v 5 1200 rpm 5 125.7 rad/s 1 lb 1 m 5 (1 oz) 5 0.001941 lb ? s2/ft 16 oz 32.2 ft/s2 wf t m Pm sin wf t Pm The magnitude of the centrifugal force due to the unbalance of the rotor is Pm 5 man 5 mrv2 5 (0.001941 lb ? s2/ft)(126 ft)(125.7 rad/s)2 5 15.33 lb The static deflection that would be caused by a constant load Pm is Pm 15.33 lb 5 5 0.00511 in. 3000 lb/in. k The forced circular frequency vf of the motion is the angular velocity of the motor, vf 5 v 5 125.7 rad/s Substituting the values of Pm /k, vf, and vn into Eq. (19.33), we obtain xm 5 P m/k 1 2 (v f /vn ) 2 5 0.00511 in. 5 20.001352 in. 1 2 (125.7/57.5) 2 xm 5 0.001352 in. (out of phase) ◀ Note. Since vf . vn, the vibration is 180° out of phase with the centrifugal force due to the unbalance of the rotor. For example, when the unbalanced mass is directly below the axis of rotation, the position of the motor is xm 5 0.001352 in. above the position of equilibrium. 1253 bee29400_ch19_1212-1287.indd Page 1254 12/16/08 12:41:00 PM user-s172 /Volumes/204/MHDQ077/work%0/indd%0 SOLVING PROBLEMS ON YOUR OWN T his lesson was devoted to the analysis of the forced vibrations of a mechanical system. These vibrations occur either when the system is subjected to a periodic force P (Fig. 19.7), or when it is elastically connected to a support which has an alternating motion (Fig. 19.8). In the first case, the motion of the system is defined by the differential equation mẍ 1 kx 5 Pm sin vf t (19.30) where the right-hand member represents the magnitude of the force P at a given instant. In the second case, the motion is defined by the differential equation mẍ 1 kx 5 kdm sin vf t (19.31) where the right-hand member is the product of the spring constant k and the displacement of the support at a given instant. You will be concerned only with the steady-state motion of the system, which is defined by a particular solution of these equations, of the form xpart 5 xm sin vf t (19.32) 1. If the forced vibration is caused by a periodic force P, of amplitude Pm and circular frequency vf, the amplitude of the vibration is xm 5 Pm/k 1 2 (v f /v n ) 2 (19.33) where vn is the natural circular frequency of the system, vn 5 1k/m, and k is the spring constant. Note that the circular frequency of the vibration is vf and that the amplitude xm does not depend upon the initial conditions. For vf 5 vn, the denominator in Eq. (19.33) is zero and xm is infinite (Fig. 19.9); the impressed force P is said to be in resonance with the system. Also, for vf , vn, xm is positive and the vibration is in phase with P, while, for vf . vn, xm is negative and the vibration is out of phase. a. In the problems which follow, you may be asked to determine one of the parameters in Eq. (19.33) when the others are known. We suggest that you keep Fig. 19.9 in front of you when solving these problems. For example, if you are asked to find the frequency at which the amplitude of a forced vibration has a given value, but you do not know whether the vibration is in or out of phase with respect to the impressed force, you should note from Fig. 19.9 that there can be two frequencies satisfying this requirement, one corresponding to a positive value of xm and to a vibration in phase with the impressed force, and the other corresponding to a negative value of xm and to a vibration out of phase with the impressed force. 1254 bee29400_ch19_1212-1287.indd Page 1255 12/16/08 12:41:05 PM user-s172 /Volumes/204/MHDQ077/work%0/indd%0 b. Once you have obtained the amplitude xm of the motion of a component of the system from Eq. (19.33), you can use Eqs. (19.37) to determine the maximum values of the velocity and acceleration of that component: vm 5 xmvf am 5 xmvf2 (19.37) c. When the impressed force P is due to the unbalance of the rotor of a motor, its maximum value is Pm 5 mrv2f, where m is the mass of the rotor, r is the distance between its mass center and the axis of rotation, and vf is equal to the angular velocity v of the rotor expressed in rad/s [Sample Prob. 19.5]. 2. If the forced vibration is caused by the simple harmonic motion of a support, of amplitude dm and circular frequency vf, the amplitude of the vibration is xm 5 dm 1 2 (v f /v n ) 2 (19.339) where vn is the natural circular frequency of the system, vn 5 1k/m. Again, note that the circular frequency of the vibration is vf and that the amplitude xm does not depend upon the initial conditions. a. Be sure to read our comments in paragraphs 1, 1a, and 1b, since they apply equally well to a vibration caused by the motion of a support. b. If the maximum acceleration am of the support is specified, rather than its maximum displacement dm, remember that, since the motion of the support is a simple harmonic motion, you can use the relation am 5 dmv2f to determine dm; the value obtained is then substituted into Eq. (19.339). 1255 bee29400_ch19_1212-1287.indd Page 1256 12/16/08 12:41:10 PM user-s172 /Volumes/204/MHDQ077/work%0/indd%0 PROBLEMS P = Pm sin w f t 19.99 A 50-kg block is attached to a spring of constant k 5 20 kN/m and can move without friction in a vertical slot as shown. It is acted upon by a periodic force of magnitude P 5 Pm sin v f t, where vf 5 18 rad/s. Knowing that the amplitude of the motion is 3 mm, determine the value of Pm. 50 kg 19.100 A 9-lb collar can slide on a frictionless horizontal rod and is k = 20 kN/m Fig. P19.99 attached to a spring of constant 2.5 lb/in. It is acted upon by a periodic force of magnitude P 5 Pm sin vf t, where Pm 5 3 lb. Determine the amplitude of the motion of the collar if (a) vf 5 5 rad/s, (b) vf 5 10 rad/s. P = Pm sin w f t Fig. P19.100, P19.101 and P19.102 19.101 A 9-lb collar can slide on a frictionless horizontal rod and is attached to a spring of constant k. It is acted upon by a periodic force of magnitude P 5 Pm sin vf t, where Pm 5 2 lb and vf 5 5 rad/s. Determine the value of the spring constant k knowing that the motion of the collar has an amplitude of 6 in. and is (a) in phase with the applied force, (b) out of phase with the applied force. A T = Tm sin w f t 19.102 A collar of mass m which slides on a frictionless horizontal rod is attached to a spring of constant k and is acted upon by a periodic force of magnitude P 5 Pm sin vf t. Determine the range of values of vf for which the amplitude of the vibration exceeds two times the static deflection caused by a constant force of magnitude Pm. B 19.103 An 8-kg uniform disk of radius 200 mm is welded to a vertical Fig. P19.103 and P19.104 A shaft with a fixed end at B. The disk rotates through an angle of 3° when a static couple of magnitude 50 N ? m is applied to it. If the disk is acted upon by a periodic torsional couple of magnitude T 5 Tm sin vf t, where Tm 5 60 N ? m, determine the range of values of vf for which the amplitude of the vibration is less than the angle of rotation caused by a static couple of magnitude Tm. 19.104 For the disk of Prob. 19.103 determine the range of values of vf for which the amplitude of the vibration will be less than 3.5°. 19.105 An 8-kg block A slides in a vertical frictionless slot and is conB Fig. P19.105 1256 d = dm sin w f t nected to a moving support B by means of a spring AB of constant k 5 1.6 kN/m. Knowing that the displacement of the support is d 5 dm sin vf t, where dm 5 150 mm, determine the range of values of vf for which the amplitude of the fluctuating force exerted by the spring on the block is less than 120 N. bee29400_ch19_1212-1287.indd Page 1257 12/16/08 12:41:13 PM user-s172 /Volumes/204/MHDQ077/work%0/indd%0 Problems 19.106 Rod AB is rigidly attached to the frame of a motor running at a constant speed. When a collar of mass m is placed on the spring, it is observed to vibrate with an amplitude of 15 mm. When two collars, each of mass m, are placed on the spring, the amplitude is observed to be 18 mm. What amplitude of vibration should be expected when three collars, each of mass m, are placed on the spring? (Obtain two answers.) B 19.107 A cantilever beam AB supports a block which causes a static deflection of 2 in. at B. Assuming that the support at A undergoes a vertical periodic displacement d 5 dm sin vf t, where dm 5 0.5 in., determine the range of values of vf for which the amplitude of the motion of the block will be less than 1 in. Neglect the weight of the beam and assume that the block does not leave the beam. B A B A (a) 1257 A (b) (c) Fig. P19.106 d = dm sin w f t B A Fig. P19.107 19.108 A variable-speed motor is rigidly attached to a beam BC. When the speed of the motor is less than 600 rpm or more than 1200 rpm, a small object placed at A is observed to remain in contact with the beam. For speeds between 600 and 1200 rpm the object is observed to “dance” and actually to lose contact with the beam. Determine the speed at which resonance will occur. A B C Fig. P19.108 19.109 An 8-kg block A slides in a vertical frictionless slot and is con- nected to a moving support B by means of a spring AB of constant k 5 120 N/m. Knowing that the acceleration of the support is a 5 am sin vf t, where am 5 1.5 m/s2 and vf 5 5 rad/s, determine (a) the maximum displacement of block A, (b) the amplitude of the fluctuating force exerted by the spring on the block. A B a = am sin w f t Fig. P19.109 A d = dm sin w f t 19.110 An 0.8-lb ball is connected to a paddle by means of an elastic cord AB of constant k 5 5 lb/ft. Knowing that the paddle is moved vertically according to the relation d 5 dm sin vf t, where dm 5 8 in., determine the maximum allowable circular frequency vf if the cord is not to become slack. B Fig. P19.110 bee29400_ch19_1212-1287.indd Page 1258 1258 12/16/08 12:41:16 PM user-s172 /Volumes/204/MHDQ077/work%0/indd%0 19.111 A simple pendulum of length l is suspended from collar C which Mechanical Vibrations x C = dm sin wf t C is forced to move horizontally according to the relation xC 5 dm sin vf t. Determine the range of values of vf for which the amplitude of the motion of the bob is less than dm. (assume that dm is small compared with the length l of the pendulum) 19.112 The 1.2-kg bob of a simple pendulum of length l 5 600 mm is sus- pended from a 1.4-kg collar C. The collar is forced to move according to the relation xC 5 dm sin vf t, with an amplitude dm 5 10 mm and a frequency ff 5 0.5 Hz. Determine (a) the amplitude of the motion of the bob, (b) the force that must be applied to collar C to maintain the motion. l 19.113 A motor of mass M is supported by springs with an equivalent x Fig. P19.111 and P19.112 spring constant k. The unbalance of its rotor is equivalent to a mass m located at a distance r from the axis of rotation. Show that when the angular velocity of the motor is vf, the amplitude xm of the motion of the motor is xm 5 r(m/M)(v f /vn ) 2 1 2 (v f /vn ) 2 where vn 5 2k/M. 19.114 As the rotational speed of a spring-supported 100-kg motor is increased, the amplitude of the vibration due to the unbalance of its 15-kg rotor first increases and then decreases. It is observed that as very high speeds are reached, the amplitude of the vibration approaches 3.3 mm. Determine the distance between the mass center of the rotor and its axis of rotation. (Hint: Use the formula derived in Prob. 19.113.) 19.115 A motor weighing 400 lb is supported by springs having a total constant of 1200 lb/in. The unbalance of the rotor is equivalent to a 1-oz weight located 8 in. from the axis of rotation. Determine the range of allowable values of the motor speed if the amplitude of the vibration is not to exceed 0.06 in. 19.116 As the rotational speed of a spring-supported motor is slowly increased from 300 to 500 rpm, the amplitude of the vibration due to the unbalance of its rotor is observed to increase continuously from 1.5 to 6 mm. Determine the speed at which resonance will occur. 19.117 A 220-lb motor is bolted to a light horizontal beam. The unbalance of its rotor is equivalent to a 2-oz weight located 4 in. from the axis of rotation. Knowing that resonance occurs at a motor speed of 400 rpm, determine the amplitude of the steady-state vibration at (a) 800 rpm, (b) 200 rpm, (c) 425 rpm. 19.118 A 180-kg motor is bolted to a light horizontal beam. The unbalance Fig. P19.117 and P19.118 of its rotor is equivalent to a 28-g mass located 150 mm from the axis of rotation, and the static deflection of the beam due to the weight of the motor is 12 mm. The amplitude of the vibration due to the unbalance can be decreased by adding a plate to the base of the motor. If the amplitude of vibration is to be less than 60 mm for motor speeds above 300 rpm, determine the required mass of the plate. bee29400_ch19_1212-1287.indd Page 1259 12/16/08 12:41:17 PM user-s172 /Volumes/204/MHDQ077/work%0/indd%0 Problems 19.119 The unbalance of the rotor of a 400-lb motor is equivalent to a 3-oz weight located 6 in. from the axis of rotation. In order to limit to 0.2 lb the amplitude of the fluctuating force exerted on the foundation when the motor is run at speeds of 100 rpm and above, a pad is to be placed between the motor and the foundation. Determine (a) the maximum allowable spring constant k of the pad, (b) the corresponding amplitude of the fluctuating force exerted on the foundation when the motor is run at 200 rpm. 1259 19.120 A 180-kg motor is supported by springs of total constant 150 kN/m. The unbalance of the rotor is equivalent to a 28-g mass located 150 mm from the axis of rotation. Determine the range of speeds of the motor for which the amplitude of the fluctuating force exerted on the foundation is less than 20 N. Fig. P19.119 19.121 A vibrometer used to measure the amplitude of vibrations consists essentially of a box containing a mass-spring system with a known natural frequency of 120 Hz. The box is rigidly attached to a surface which is moving according to the equation y 5 dm sin vf t. If the amplitude zm of the motion of the mass relative to the box is used as a measure of the amplitude dm of the vibration of the surface, determine (a) the percent error when the frequency of the vibration is 600 Hz, (b) the frequency at which the error is zero. 19.122 A certain accelerometer consists essentially of a box containing a mass-spring system with a known natural frequency of 2200 Hz. The box is rigidly attached to a surface which is moving according to the equation y 5 dm sin vf t. If the amplitude zm of the motion of the mass relative to the box times a scale factor vn2 is used as a measure of the maximum acceleration am 5 dm v2f of the vibrating surface, determine the percent error when the frequency of the vibration is 600 Hz. 19.123 Figures (1) and (2) show how springs can be used to support a block in two different situations. In Fig. (1) they help decrease the amplitude of the fluctuating force transmitted by the block to the foundation. In Fig. (2) they help decrease the amplitude of the fluctuating displacement transmitted by the foundation to the block. The ratio of the transmitted force to the impressed force or the ratio of the transmitted displacement to the impressed displacement is called the transmissibility. Derive an equation for the transmissibility for each situation. Give your answer in terms of the ratio vf /vn of the frequency vf of the impressed force or impressed displacement to the natural frequency vn of the spring-mass system. Show that in order to cause any reduction in transmissibility, the ratio vf /vn must be greater than 12. P = Pm sin w f t y = dm sin w f t (1) Fig. P19.123 (2) y = dm sin w f t Fig. P19.121 and P19.122 bee29400_ch19_1212-1287.indd Page 1260 1260 12/16/08 12:41:18 PM user-s172 /Volumes/204/MHDQ077/work%0/indd%0 19.124 A 60-lb disk is attached with an eccentricity e 5 0.006 in. to Mechanical Vibrations the midpoint of a vertical shaft AB which revolves at a constant angular velocity vf. Knowing that the spring constant k for horizontal movement of the disk is 40,000 lb/ft, determine (a) the angular velocity vf at which resonance will occur, (b) the deflection r of the shaft when vf 5 1200 rpm. A e r 19.125 A small trailer and its load have a total mass of 250-kg. The trailer is supported by two springs, each of constant 10 kN/m, and is pulled over a road, the surface of which can be approximated by a sine curve with an amplitude of 40 mm and a wavelength of 5 m (i.e., the distance between successive crests is 5 m and the vertical distance from crest to trough is 80 mm). Determine (a) the speed at which resonance will occur, (b) the amplitude of the vibration of the trailer at a speed of 50 km/h. G B v Fig. P19.124 5m C Fig. P19.125 P = Pm sin w f t 19.126 Block A can move without friction in the slot as shown and is acted upon by a vertical periodic force of magnitude P 5 Pm sin vf t, where vf 5 2 rad/s and Pm 5 20 N. A spring of constant k is attached to the bottom of block A and to a 22-kg block B. Determine (a) the value of the constant k which will prevent a steadystate vibration of block A, (b) the corresponding amplitude of the vibration of block B. A k B Fig. P19.126 DAMPED VIBRATIONS *19.8 DAMPED FREE VIBRATIONS The vibrating systems considered in the first part of this chapter were assumed free of damping. Actually all vibrations are damped to some degree by friction forces. These forces can be caused by dry friction, or Coulomb friction, between rigid bodies, by fluid friction when a rigid body moves in a fluid, or by internal friction between the molecules of a seemingly elastic body. A type of damping of special interest is the viscous damping caused by fluid friction at low and moderate speeds. Viscous damping is characterized by the fact that the friction force is directly proportional and opposite to the velocity of the moving body. As an example, let us again consider a body of mass m suspended from a spring of constant k, assuming that the body is attached to the bee29400_ch19_1212-1287.indd Page 1261 12/16/08 12:41:19 PM user-s172 /Volumes/204/MHDQ077/work%0/indd%0 1woF 5 ma: 1261 19.8 Damped Free Vibrations plunger of a dashpot (Fig. 19.10). The magnitude of the friction force exerted on the plunger by the surrounding fluid is equal to cẋ, where the constant c, expressed in N ? s/m or lb ? s/ft and known as the coefficient of viscous damping, depends upon the physical properties of the fluid and the construction of the dashpot. The equation of motion is W 2 k(dst 1 x) 2 cẋ 5 m ẍ Recalling that W 5 kdst, we write mẍ 1 cẋ 1 kx 5 0 Substituting x 5 elt into (19.38) and dividing through by elt, we write the characteristic equation 2 ml 1 cl 1 k 5 0 T = k(dst + x) (19.38) Equilibrium x = W (19.39) and obtain the roots c c 2 k l52 6 a b 2 B 2m 2m m .. ma = mx (19.40) Defining the critical damping coefficient cc as the value of c which makes the radical in Eq. (19.40) equal to zero, we write a cc 2 k b 2 50 m 2m cc 5 2m k 5 2mv n Am (19.41) where vn is the natural circular frequency of the system in the absence of damping. We can distinguish three different cases of damping, depending upon the value of the coefficient c. 1. Heavy damping: c . cc . The roots l1 and l2 of the character- istic equation (19.39) are real and distinct, and the general solution of the differential equation (19.38) is x 5 C 1e l1t 1 C 2 e l2t (19.42) This solution corresponds to a nonvibratory motion. Since l1 and l2 are both negative, x approaches zero as t increases indefinitely. However, the system actually regains its equilibrium position after a finite time. 2. Critical damping: c 5 cc. The characteristic equation has a double root l 5 2cc /2m 5 2vn, and the general solution of (19.38) is x 5 (C 1 1 C 2t)e2vnt (19.43) The motion obtained is again nonvibratory. Critically damped systems are of special interest in engineering applications since they regain their equilibrium position in the shortest possible time without oscillation. 3. Light damping: c , cc. The roots of Eq. (19.39) are complex and conjugate, and the general solution of (19.38) is of the form x 5 e2(c/2m)t(C1 sin vd t 1 C2 cos vd t) . cx (19.44) Fig. 19.10 bee29400_ch19_1212-1287.indd Page 1262 1262 Mechanical Vibrations 12/16/08 12:41:25 PM user-s172 /Volumes/204/MHDQ077/work%0/indd%0 where vd is defined by the relation v 2d 5 k c 2 2a b m 2m Substituting k/m 5 v2n and recalling (19.41), we write vd 5 vn c 2 12a b B cc (19.45) where the constant c/cc is known as the damping factor. Even though the motion does not actually repeat itself, the constant vd is commonly referred to as the circular frequency of the damped vibration. A substitution similar to the one used in Sec. 19.2 enables us to write the general solution of Eq. (19.38) in the form x 5 x0 e2(c/2m)t sin (vd t 1 f) (19.46) The motion defined by Eq. (19.46) is vibratory with diminishing amplitude (Fig. 19.11), and the time interval td 52p/vd separating two successive points where the curve defined by Eq. (19.46) touches one of the limiting curves shown in Fig. 19.11 is commonly referred to as the period of the damped vibration. Recalling Eq. (19.45), we observe that vd , vn and, thus, that td is larger than the period of vibration tn of the corresponding undamped system. x x0 td x0 e − c t 2m x1 O x3 x4 x2 t1 − x0 Fig. 19.11 t2 t3 t4 t bee29400_ch19_1212-1287.indd Page 1263 *19.9 12/16/08 12:41:27 PM user-s172 /Volumes/204/MHDQ077/work%0/indd%0 19.9 Damped Forced Vibrations DAMPED FORCED VIBRATIONS 1263 If the system considered in the preceding section is subjected to a periodic force P of magnitude P 5 Pm sin vf t, the equation of motion becomes mẍ 1 cẋ 1 kx 5 Pm sin vf t (19.47) The general solution of (19.47) is obtained by adding a particular solution of (19.47) to the complementary function or general solution of the homogeneous equation (19.38). The complementary function is given by (19.42), (19.43), or (19.44), depending upon the type of damping considered. It represents a transient motion which is eventually damped out. Our interest in this section is centered on the steady-state vibration represented by a particular solution of (19.47) of the form xpart 5 xm sin (vf t 2 w) Photo 19.2 The automobile suspension shown consists essentially of a spring and a shock absorber, which will cause the body of the car to undergo damped forced vibrations when the car is driven over an uneven road. (19.48) Substituting xpart for x into (19.47), we obtain 2mvf2 xm sin (vf t 2 w) 1 cvf xm cos (vf t 2 w) 1 kxm sin (vf t 2 w) 5 Pm sin vf t Making vf t 2 w successively equal to 0 and to p/2, we write cvf xm 5 Pm sin w (k 2 mvf2) xm 5 Pm cos w (19.49) (19.50) Squaring both members of (19.49) and (19.50) and adding, we have [(k 2 mvf2)2 1 (cvf)2] x2m 5 P 2m (19.51) Solving (19.51) for xm and dividing (19.49) and (19.50) member by member, we obtain, respectively, xm 5 Pm 2 (k 2 mv 2f ) 2 tan w 5 k 2cvmv f 1 (cv f ) 2 2 f (19.52) Recalling from (19.4) that k/m 5 v2n, where vn is the circular frequency of the undamped free vibration, and from (19.41) that 2mvn 5 cc, where cc is the critical damping coefficient of the system, we write xm xm 1 5 5 2 2 Pm/k dm 2 [1 2 (v f /v n ) ] 1 [2(c/cc )(v f /v n )] 2 tan w 5 2(c/cc )(v f /v n ) 1 2 (v f /v n ) 2 (19.53) (19.54) Photo 19.3 This truck is experiencing damped forced vibration in the vehicle dynamics test shown. bee29400_ch19_1212-1287.indd Page 1264 1264 12/16/08 12:41:35 PM user-s172 /Volumes/204/MHDQ077/work%0/indd%0 Formula (19.53) expresses the magnification factor in terms of the frequency ratio vf /vn and damping factor c/cc. It can be used to determine the amplitude of the steady-state vibration produced by an impressed force of magnitude P 5 Pm sin vf t or by an impressed support movement d 5 dm sin vf t. Formula (19.54) defines in terms of the same parameters the phase difference w between the impressed force or impressed support movement and the resulting steady-state vibration of the damped system. The magnification factor has been plotted against the frequency ratio in Fig. 19.12 for various values of the damping factor. We observe that the amplitude of a forced vibration can be kept small by choosing a large coefficient of viscous damping c or by keeping the natural and forced frequencies far apart. Mechanical Vibrations 5 c cc = 0 4 c cc = 0.125 xm Pm /k 3 or c cc = 0.25 xm dm 2 c cc = 0.50 1 c cc = 1.00 0 0 1 wf wn 2 3 Fig. 19.12 *19.10 ELECTRICAL ANALOGUES Oscillating electrical circuits are characterized by differential equations of the same type as those obtained in the preceding sections. Their analysis is therefore similar to that of a mechanical system, and the results obtained for a given vibrating system can be readily extended to the equivalent circuit. Conversely, any result obtained for an electrical circuit will also apply to the corresponding mechanical system. bee29400_ch19_1212-1287.indd Page 1265 12/16/08 12:41:38 PM user-s172 Consider an electrical circuit consisting of an inductor of inductance L, a resistor of resistance R, and a capacitor of capacitance C, connected in series with a source of alternating voltage E 5 Em sin vf t (Fig. 19.13). It is recalled from elementary circuit theory† that if i denotes the current in the circuit and q denotes the electric charge on the capacitor, the drop in potential is L(di/dt) across the inductor, Ri across the resistor, and q/C across the capacitor. Expressing that the algebraic sum of the applied voltage and of the drops in potential around the circuit loop is zero, we write q di Em sin v f t 2 L 2 Ri 2 5 0 C dt (19.55) (19.56) We verify that Eq. (19.56), which defines the oscillations of the electrical circuit of Fig. 19.13, is of the same type as Eq. (19.47), which characterizes the damped forced vibrations of the mechanical system of Fig. 19.10. By comparing the two equations, we can construct a table of the analogous mechanical and electrical expressions. Table 19.2 can be used to extend the results obtained in the preceding sections for various mechanical systems to their electrical analogues. For instance, the amplitude im of the current in the circuit of Fig. 19.13 can be obtained by noting that it corresponds to the TABLE 19.2 Characteristics of a Mechanical System and of Its Electrical Analogue Mechanical System Electrical Circuit m Mass c Coefficient of viscous damping k Spring constant x Displacement v Velocity P Applied force L R 1/C q i E 19.10 Electrical Analogues R C L E = Em sin wf t Rearranging the terms and recalling that at any instant the current i is equal to the rate of change q̇ of the charge q, we have 1 . Lq̈ 1 Rq 1 q 5 Em sin v f t C /Volumes/204/MHDQ077/work%0/indd%0 Inductance Resistance Reciprocal of capacitance Charge Current Applied voltage †See C. R. Paul, S. A. Nasar and L. E. Unnewehr, Introduction to Electrical Engineering, 2nd ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, 1992. Fig. 19.13 1265 bee29400_ch19_1212-1287.indd Page 1266 12/16/08 8:48:39 PM user-s172 1266 /Volumes/204/MHDQ077/work%0/indd%0 maximum value vm of the velocity in the analogous mechanical system. Recalling from the first of Eqs. (19.37) that vm 5 xmvf, substituting for xm from Eq. (19.52), and replacing the constants of the mechanical system by the corresponding electrical expressions, we have Mechanical Vibrations im 5 vf Em 2 1 2 Lv 2f b 1 (Rv f ) 2 B C a im 5 Em 1 2 b R 1 aLv f 2 B Cv f (19.57) 2 R C L S Fig. 19.14 The radical in the expression obtained is known as the impedance of the electrical circuit. The analogy between mechanical systems and electrical circuits holds for transient as well as steady-state oscillations. The oscillations of the circuit shown in Fig. 19.14, for instance, are analogous to the damped free vibrations of the system of Fig. 19.10. As far as the initial conditions are concerned, we should note that closing the switch S when the charge on the capacitor is q 5 q0 is equivalent to releasing the mass of the mechanical system with no initial velocity from the position x 5 x0. We should also observe that if a battery of constant voltage E is introduced in the electrical circuit of Fig. 19.14, closing the switch S will be equivalent to suddenly applying a force of constant magnitude P to the mass of the mechanical system of Fig. 19.10. The discussion above would be of questionable value if its only result were to make it possible for mechanics students to analyze electrical circuits without learning the elements of circuit theory. It is hoped that this discussion will instead encourage students to apply to the solution of problems in mechanical vibrations the mathematical techniques they may learn in later courses in circuit theory. The chief value of the concept of electrical analogue, however, resides in its application to experimental methods for the determination of the characteristics of a given mechanical system. Indeed, an electrical circuit is much more easily constructed than is a mechanical model, and the fact that its characteristics can be modified by varying the inductance, resistance, or capacitance of its various components makes the use of the electrical analogue particularly convenient. To determine the electrical analogue of a given mechanical system, we focus our attention on each moving mass in the system and observe which springs, dashpots, or external forces are applied directly to it. An equivalent electrical loop can then be constructed bee29400_ch19_1212-1287.indd Page 1267 12/16/08 12:41:43 PM user-s172 to match each of the mechanical units thus defined; the various loops obtained in that way will together form the desired circuit. Consider, for instance, the mechanical system of Fig. 19.15. We observe that the mass m1 is acted upon by two springs of constants k1 and k2 and by two dashpots characterized by the coefficients of viscous damping c1 and c2. The electrical circuit should therefore include a loop consisting of an inductor of inductance L1 proportional to m1, of two capacitors of capacitance C1 and C2 inversely proportional to k1 and k2, respectively, and of two resistors of resistance R1 and R2, proportional to c1 and c2, respectively. Since the mass m2 is acted upon by the spring k2 and the dashpot c2, as well as the force P 5 Pm sin vf t, the circuit should also include a loop containing the capacitor C2, the resistor R2, the new inductor L2, and the voltage source E 5 Em sin vf t (Fig. 19.16). To check that the mechanical system of Fig. 19.15 and the electrical circuit of Fig. 19.16 actually satisfy the same differential equations, the equations of motion for m1 and m2 will first be derived. Denoting, respectively, by x1 and x2 the displacements of m1 and m2 from their equilibrium positions, we observe that the elongation of the spring k1 (measured from the equilibrium position) is equal to x1, while the elongation of the spring k2 is equal to the relative displacement x2 2 x1 of m2 with respect to m1. The equations of motion for m1 and m2 are therefore /Volumes/204/MHDQ077/work%0/indd%0 19.10 Electrical Analogues c1 k1 m1 x1 c2 k2 m2 x2 P = Pm sin wf t Fig. 19.15 C1 C2 R1 i1 L1 R2 m1 ẍ1 1 c1 ẋ 1 1 c2(ẋ 1 2 ẋ2) 1 k1x1 1 k2(x1 2 x2) 5 0 (19.58) i2 m2 ẍ2 1 c2(ẋ2 2 ẋ1) 1 k2(x2 2 x1) 5 Pm sin vf t (19.59) E = Em sin wf t Consider now the electrical circuit of Fig. 19.16; we denote, respectively, by i1 and i2 the current in the first and second loops, and by q1 and q2 the integrals ei1 dt and ei2 dt. Noting that the charge on the capacitor C1 is q1, while the charge on C2 is q1 2 q2, we express that the sum of the potential differences in each loop is zero and obtain the following equations q1 q1 2 q2 . . . L1q̈ 1 1 R1q 1 1 R2(q 1 2 q 2 ) 1 1 50 C1 C2 (19.60) q2 2 q1 . . 5 Em sin v f t (19.61) L2q̈ 2 1 R2 (q 2 2 q 1 ) 1 C2 We easily check that Eqs. (19.60) and (19.61) reduce to (19.58) and (19.59), respectively, when the substitutions indicated in Table 19.2 are performed. Fig. 19.16 L2 1267 bee29400_ch19_1212-1287.indd Page 1268 12/16/08 12:41:49 PM user-s172 /Volumes/204/MHDQ077/work%0/indd%0 SOLVING PROBLEMS ON YOUR OWN I n this lesson a more realistic model of a vibrating system was developed by including the effect of the viscous damping caused by fluid friction. Viscous damping was represented in Fig. 19.10 by the force exerted on the moving body by a plunger moving in a dashpot. This force is equal in magnitude to cẋ, where the constant c, expressed in N ? s/m or lb ? s/ft, is known as the coefficient of viscous damping. Keep in mind that the same sign convention should be used for x, ẋ, and ẍ. 1. Damped free vibrations. The differential equation defining this motion was found to be mẍ 1 cẋ 1 kx 5 0 (19.38) To obtain the solution of this equation, calculate the critical damping coefficient cc, using the formula cc 5 2m 2k/m 5 2mv n (19.41) where vn is the natural circular frequency of the undamped system. a. If c . cc (heavy damping), the solution of Eq. (19.38) is x 5 C 1e l1t 1 C 2 e l2t (19.42) where l1,2 5 2 c c 2 k 6 a b 2 B 2m m 2m (19.40) and where the constants C1 and C2 can be determined from the initial conditions x(0) and ẋ(0). This solution corresponds to a nonvibratory motion. b. If c 5 cc (critical damping), the solution of Eq. (19.38) is x 5 (C 1 1 C 2t)e2vnt (19.43) which also corresponds to a nonvibratory motion. c. If c , cc (light damping), the solution of Eq. (19.38) is x 5 x0 e2(c/2m)t sin (vd t 1 f) 1268 (19.46) bee29400_ch19_1212-1287.indd Page 1269 12/16/08 12:41:55 PM user-s172 /Volumes/204/MHDQ077/work%0/indd%0 where vd 5 vn c 2 12a b B cc (19.45) and where x0 and f can be determined from the initial conditions x(0) and ẋ(0). This solution corresponds to oscillations of decreasing amplitude and of period td 5 2p/vd (Fig. 19.11). 2. Damped forced vibrations. These vibrations occur when a system with viscous damping is subjected to a periodic force P of magnitude P 5 Pm sin vf t or when it is elastically connected to a support with an alternating motion d 5 dm sin vf t. In the first case the motion is defined by the differential equation mẍ 1 cẋ 1 kx 5 Pm sin vf t (19.47) and in the second case by a similar equation obtained by replacing Pm with kdm. You will be concerned only with the steady-state motion of the system, which is defined by a particular solution of these equations, of the form xpart 5 xm sin (vf t 2 w) (19.48) xm xm 1 5 5 2 2 Pm/k dm 2 [1 2 (v f /v n ) ] 1 [2(c/cc )(v f /v n ) ] 2 (19.53) where and tan w 5 2(c/cc )(v f /v n ) 1 2 (v f /v n ) 2 (19.54) The expression given in Eq. (19.53) is referred to as the magnification factor and has been plotted against the frequency ratio vf /vn in Fig. 19.12 for various values of the damping factor c/cc. In the problems which follow, you may be asked to determine one of the parameters in Eqs. (19.53) and (19.54) when the others are known. 1269 bee29400_ch19_1212-1287.indd Page 1270 12/16/08 12:42:00 PM user-s172 /Volumes/204/MHDQ077/work%0/indd%0 PROBLEMS 19.127 Show that in the case of heavy damping (c . cc), a body never passes through its position of equilibrium O (a) if it is released with no initial velocity from an arbitrary position or (b) if it is started from O with an arbitrary initial velocity. 19.128 Show that in the case of heavy damping (c . cc), a body released from an arbitrary position with an arbitrary initial velocity cannot pass more than once through its equilibrium position. 19.129 In the case of light damping, the displacements x1, x2 , x3, shown in Fig. 19.11 may be assumed equal to the maximum displacements. Show that the ratio of any two successive maximum displacements xn and xn11 is a constant and that the natural logarithm of this ratio, called the logarithmic decrement, is ln 2p(c/ccr ) xn 5 xn11 21 2 (c/ccr ) 2 19.130 In practice, it is often difficult to determine the logarithmic decre- ment of a system with light damping defined in Prob. 19.129 by measuring two successive maximum displacements. Show that the logarithmic decrement can also be expressed as (1/k) ln(xn/xn1k), where k is the number of cycles between readings of the maximum displacement. 19.131 In a system with light damping (c , cc), the period of vibration is commonly defined as the time interval td 5 2p/vd corresponding to two successive points where the displacement-time curve touches one of the limiting curves shown in Fig. 19.11. Show that the interval of time (a) between a maximum positive displacement and the following maximum negative displacement is 12 td, (b) between two successive zero displacements is 12 td, (c) between a maximum positive displacement and the following zero displacement is greater than 14 td. 19.132 The block shown is depressed 1.2 in. from its equilibrium position and released. Knowing that after 10 cycles the maximum displacement of the block is 0.5 in., determine (a) the damping factor c/cc, (b) the value of the coefficient of viscous damping. (Hint: See Probs. 19.129 and 19.130.) k = 8 lb/ft 9 lb c 1270 Fig. P19.132 bee29400_ch19_1212-1287.indd Page 1271 12/16/08 12:42:05 PM user-s172 /Volumes/204/MHDQ077/work%0/indd%0 Problems 19.133 A loaded railroad car weighing 30,000 lb is rolling at a constant velocity v0 when it couples with a spring and dashpot bumper system (Fig. 1). The recorded displacement-time curve of the loaded railroad car after coupling is as shown (Fig. 2). Determine (a) the damping constant, (b) the spring constant. (Hint: Use the definition of logarithmic decrement given in 19.129.) 0.6 1271 0.41 s 0.5 Displacement (in.) v0 k c 0.4 0.5 in. 0.3 0.12 in. 0.2 0.1 0 −0.1 −0.2 0.2 0.4 0.6 Time (s) −0.3 (1) (2) Fig. P19.133 19.134 A 4-kg block A is dropped from a height of 800 mm onto a 9-kg block B which is at rest. Block B is supported by a spring of constant k 5 1500 N/m and is attached to a dashpot of damping coefficient c 5 230 N ? s/m. Knowing that there is no rebound, determine the maximum distance the blocks will move after the impact. A 800 mm B k c Fig. P19.134 19.135 Solve Prob. 19.134 assuming that the damping coefficient of the dashpot is c 5 300 N ? s/m. 19.136 The barrel of a field gun weighs 1500 lb and is returned into firing position after recoil by a recuperator of constant c 5 1100 lb ? s/ft. Determine (a) the constant k which should be used for the recuperator to return the barrel into firing position in the shortest possible time without any oscillation, (b) the time needed for the barrel to move back two-thirds of the way from its maximum-recoil position to its firing position. 0.8 1 bee29400_ch19_1212-1287.indd Page 1272 1272 Mechanical Vibrations 12/16/08 12:42:10 PM user-s172 /Volumes/204/MHDQ077/work%0/indd%0 19.137 A uniform rod of mass m is supported by a pin at A and a spring of constant k at B and is connected at D to a dashpot of damping coefficient c. Determine in terms of m, k, and c, for small oscillations, (a) the differential equation of motion, (b) the critical damping coefficient cc. k A D B c l 2 l 2 Fig. P19.137 19.138 A 4-lb uniform rod is supported by a pin at O and a spring at A and is connected to a dashpot at B. Determine (a) the differential equation of motion for small oscillations, (b) the angle that the rod will form with the horizontal 5 s after end B has been pushed 0.9 in. down and released. 18 in. 6 in. O A k = 5 lb/ft B c = 0.5 lb⋅ s/ft Fig. P19.138 19.139 A 1100-lb machine element is supported by two springs, each of constant 3000 lb/ft. A periodic force of 30-lb amplitude is applied to the element with a frequency of 2.8 Hz. Knowing that the coefficient of damping is 110 lb ? s/ft, determine the amplitude of the steady-state vibration of the element. 19.140 In Prob. 19.139, determine the required value of the constant of each spring if the amplitude of the steady-state vibration is to be 0.05 in. 19.141 In the case of the forced vibration of a system, determine the range of values of the damping factor c/cc for which the magnification factor will always decrease as the frequency ratio vf /vn increases. 19.142 Show that for a small value of the damping factor c/cc, the maxi- mum amplitude of a forced vibration occurs when vf < vn and that the corresponding value of the magnification factor is 12 (c/cc ). bee29400_ch19_1212-1287.indd Page 1273 12/16/08 12:42:15 PM user-s172 /Volumes/204/MHDQ077/work%0/indd%0 Problems 19.143 A 50-kg motor is directly supported by a light horizontal beam which has a static deflection of 6 mm due to the weight of the motor. The unbalance of the rotor is equivalent to a mass of 100 g located 75 mm from the axis of rotation. Knowing that the amplitude of the vibration of the motor is 0.8 mm at a speed of 400 rpm, determine (a) the damping factor c/c c, (b) the coefficient of damping c. Fig. P19.143 19.144 A 15-kg motor is supported by four springs, each of constant 45 kN/m. The unbalance of the motor is equivalent to a mass of 20 g located 125 mm from the axis of rotation. Knowing that the motor is constrained to move vertically, determine the amplitude of the steady-state vibration of the motor at a speed of 1500 rpm, assuming (a) that no damping is present, (b) that the damping factor c/cc is equal to 1.3. Fig. P19.144 and P19.145 19.145 A 100-kg motor is supported by four springs, each of constant 90 kN/m, and is connected to the ground by a dashpot having a coefficient of damping c 5 6500 N ? s/m. The motor is constrained to move vertically, and the amplitude of its motion is observed to be 2.1 mm at a speed of 1200 rpm. Knowing that the mass of the rotor is 15 kg, determine the distance between the mass center of the rotor and the axis of the shaft. 19.146 A counter-rotating eccentric mass exciter consisting of two rotat- ing 400-g masses describing circles of 150-mm radius at the same speed but in opposite senses is placed on a machine element to induce a steady-state vibration of the element and to determine some of the dynamic characteristics of the element. At a speed of 1200 rpm a stroboscope shows the eccentric masses to be exactly under their respective axes of rotation and the element to be passing through its position of static equilibrium. Knowing that the amplitude of the motion of the element at that speed is 15 mm and that the total mass of the system is 140 kg, determine (a) the combined spring constant k, (b) the damping factor c/c c. Fig. P19.146 1273 bee29400_ch19_1212-1287.indd Page 1274 1274 12/16/08 12:42:21 PM user-s172 /Volumes/204/MHDQ077/work%0/indd%0 19.147 A simplified model of a washing machine is shown. A bundle of Mechanical Vibrations wet clothes forms a mass mb of 10 kg in the machine and causes a rotating unbalance. The rotating mass is 20 kg (including mb) and the radius of the washer basket e is 25 cm. Knowing the washer has an equivalent spring constant k 5 1000 N/m and damping ratio z 5 c/cc 5 0.05 and during the spin cycle the drum rotates at 250 rpm, determine the amplitude of the motion and the magnitude of the force transmitted to the sides of the washing machine. k/2 c/2 e mb m Frictionless support k/2 c/2 Fig. P19.147 P = Pm sin w f t 19.148 A machine element is supported by springs and is connected to a dashpot as shown. Show that if a periodic force of magnitude P 5 Pm sin vf t is applied to the element, the amplitude of the fluctuating force transmitted to the foundation is Fm 5 Pm 1 1 [2(c/cc )(v f /v n ) ] 2 B [1 2 (v f /vn ) 2 ] 2 1 [2(c/cc )(v f /v n )] 2 19.149 A 200-lb machine element supported by four springs, each of con- Fig. P19.148 and P19.149 stant k 5 12 lb/ft, is subjected to a periodic force of frequency 0.8 Hz and amplitude 20 lb. Determine the amplitude of the fluctuating force transmitted to the foundation if (a) a dashpot with a coefficient of damping c 5 25 lb ? s/ft is connected to the machine element and to the ground, (b) the dashpot is removed. *19.150 For a steady-state vibration with damping under a harmonic force, m c k show that the mechanical energy dissipated per cycle by the dashpot is E 5 pcx2mv f, where c is the coefficient of damping, xm is the amplitude of the motion, and vf is the circular frequency of the harmonic force. *19.151 The suspension of an automobile can be approximated by the dm L Fig. P19.151 simplified spring-and-dashpot system shown. (a) Write the differential equation defining the vertical displacement of the mass m when the system moves at a speed v over a road with a sinusoidal cross section of amplitude dm and wave length L. (b) Derive an expression for the amplitude of the vertical displacement of the mass m. bee29400_ch19_1212-1287.indd Page 1275 12/16/08 12:42:28 PM user-s172 *19.152 Two blocks A and B, each of mass m, are supported as shown by three springs of the same constant k. Blocks A and B are connected by a dashpot and block B is connected to the ground by two dashpots, each dashpot having the same coefficient of damping c. Block A is subjected to a force of magnitude P 5 Pm sin vf t. Write the differential equations defining the displacements xA and xB of the two blocks from their equilibrium positions. P = Pm sin w f t A xA B xB Fig. P19.152 19.153 Express in terms of L, C, and E the range of values of the resis- tance R for which oscillations will take place in the circuit shown when switch S is closed. R C L E S Fig. P19.153 19.154 Consider the circuit of Prob. 19.153 when the capacitor C is removed. If switch S is closed at time t 5 0, determine (a) the final value of the current in the circuit, (b) the time t at which the current will have reached (1 2 1/e) times its final value. (The desired value of t is known as the time constant of the circuit.) /Volumes/204/MHDQ077/work%0/indd%0 Problems 1275 bee29400_ch19_1212-1287.indd Page 1276 1276 Mechanical Vibrations 12/16/08 12:42:32 PM user-s172 /Volumes/204/MHDQ077/work%0/indd%0 19.155 and 19.156 Draw the electrical analogue of the mechanical system shown. (Hint: Draw the loops corresponding to the free bodies m and A.) k A c m P = Pm sin w f t Fig. P19.155 and P19.157 19.157 and 19.158 Write the differential equations defining (a) the displacements of the mass m and of the point A, (b) the charges on the capacitors of the electrical analogue. c k1 A k2 m P = Pm sin wt Fig. P19.156 and P19.158 bee29400_ch19_1212-1287.indd Page 1277 12/16/08 12:42:37 PM user-s172 /Volumes/204/MHDQ077/work%0/indd%0 REVIEW AND SUMMARY This chapter was devoted to the study of mechanical vibrations, i.e., to the analysis of the motion of particles and rigid bodies oscillating about a position of equilibrium. In the first part of the chapter [Secs. 19.2 through 19.7], we considered vibrations without damping, while the second part was devoted to damped vibrations [Secs. 19.8 through 19.10]. In Sec. 19.2, we considered the free vibrations of a particle, i.e., the motion of a particle P subjected to a restoring force proportional to the displacement of the particle—such as the force exerted by a spring. If the displacement x of the particle P is measured from its equilibrium position O (Fig. 19.17), the resultant F of the forces acting on P (including its weight) has a magnitude kx and is directed toward O. Applying Newton’s second law F 5 ma and recalling that a 5 ẍ, we wrote the differential equation mẍ 1 kx 5 0 (19.2) ẍ 1 v2n x 5 0 (19.6) Free vibrations of a particle or, setting v2n 5 k/m, − xm O Equilibrium x P + xm + Fig. 19.17 1277 bee29400_ch19_1212-1287.indd Page 1278 1278 Mechanical Vibrations 12/16/08 12:42:44 PM user-s172 /Volumes/204/MHDQ077/work%0/indd%0 The motion defined by this equation is called a simple harmonic motion. The solution of Eq. (19.6), which represents the displacement of the particle P, was expressed as x 5 xm sin (vnt 1 f) (19.10) where xm 5 amplitude of the vibration vn 5 1k/m 5 natural circular frequency f 5 phase angle The period of the vibration (i.e., the time required for a full cycle) and its natural frequency (i.e., the number of cycles per second) were expressed as Period 5 tn 5 2p vn Natural frequency 5 fn 5 vn 1 5 tn 2p (19.13) (19.14) The velocity and acceleration of the particle were obtained by differentiating Eq. (19.10), and their maximum values were found to be v m 5 xm v n am 5 xmv2n (19.15) Since all the above parameters depend directly upon the natural circular frequency vn and thus upon the ratio k/m, it is essential in any given problem to calculate the value of the constant k; this can be done by determining the relation between the restoring force and the corresponding displacement of the particle [Sample Prob. 19.1]. It was also shown that the oscillatory motion of the particle P can be represented by the projection on the x axis of the motion of a point Q describing an auxiliary circle of radius xm with the constant angular velocity vn (Fig. 19.18). The instantaneous values of the velocity and acceleration of P can then be obtained by projecting on the x axis the vectors vm and am representing, respectively, the velocity and acceleration of Q. xm O a x P v x Fig. 19.18 wnt f Q0 a m = x mwn2 Q wnt + f vm = x mwn bee29400_ch19_1212-1287.indd Page 1279 12/16/08 12:42:47 PM user-s172 While the motion of a simple pendulum is not truly a simple harmonic motion, the formulas given above can be used with v2n 5 g/l to calculate the period and natural frequency of the small oscillations of a simple pendulum [Sec. 19.3]. Large-amplitude oscillations of a simple pendulum were discussed in Sec. 19.4. The free vibrations of a rigid body can be analyzed by choosing an appropriate variable, such as a distance x or an angle u, to define the position of the body, drawing a free-body-diagram equation to express the equivalence of the external and effective forces, and writing an equation relating the selected variable and its second derivative [Sec. 19.5]. If the equation obtained is of the form ẍ 1 v2n x 5 0 or ü 1 v2nu 5 0 /Volumes/204/MHDQ077/work%0/indd%0 Review and Summary 1279 Simple pendulum Free vibrations of a rigid body (19.21) the vibration considered is a simple harmonic motion and its period and natural frequency can be obtained by identifying vn and substituting its value into Eqs. (19.13) and (19.14) [Sample Probs. 19.2 and 19.3]. The principle of conservation of energy can be used as an alternative method for the determination of the period and natural frequency of the simple harmonic motion of a particle or rigid body [Sec. 19.6]. Choosing again an appropriate variable, such as u, to define the position of the system, we express that the total energy of the system is conserved, T1 1 V1 5 T2 1 V2, between the position of maximum displacement (u1 5 um) and the position of maximum velocity (u̇2 5 u̇m). If the motion considered is simple harmonic, the two members of the equation obtained consist of homogeneous quadratic expressions in um and u̇m, respectively.† Substituting u̇m 5 umvn in 2 and solve for the circular frequency this equation, we can factor out um vn [Sample Prob. 19.4]. Using the principle of conservation of energy In Sec. 19.7, we considered the forced vibrations of a mechanical system. These vibrations occur when the system is subjected to a periodic force (Fig. 19.19) or when it is elastically connected to a support which has an alternating motion (Fig. 19.20). Denoting by vf the forced circular frequency, we found that in the first case, the motion of the system was defined by the differential equation Forced vibrations mẍ 1 kx 5 Pm sin vf t (19.30) and that in the second case it was defined by the differential equation mẍ 1 kx 5 kdm sin vf t (19.31) The general solution of these equations is obtained by adding a particular solution of the form xpart 5 xm sin vf t (19.32) †If the motion considered can only be approximated by a simple harmonic motion, such as for the small oscillations of a body under gravity, the potential energy must be approximated by a quadratic expression in um. bee29400_ch19_1212-1287.indd Page 1280 1280 12/16/08 12:42:47 PM user-s172 /Volumes/204/MHDQ077/work%0/indd%0 dm Mechanical Vibrations dm sin wf t wf t wf t = 0 Equilibrium x Equilibrium x P = Pm sin wf t Fig. 19.19 Fig. 19.20 to the general solution of the corresponding homogeneous equation. The particular solution (19.32) represents a steady-state vibration of the system, while the solution of the homogeneous equation represents a transient free vibration which can generally be neglected. Dividing the amplitude xm of the steady-state vibration by Pm /k in the case of a periodic force, or by dm in the case of an oscillating support, we defined the magnification factor of the vibration and found that Magnification factor 5 xm xm 1 5 5 (19.36) Pm/k dm 1 2 (v f /v n ) 2 According to Eq. (19.36), the amplitude xm of the forced vibration becomes infinite when vf 5 vn, i.e., when the forced frequency is equal to the natural frequency of the system. The impressed force or impressed support movement is then said to be in resonance with the system [Sample Prob. 19.5]. Actually the amplitude of the vibration remains finite, due to damping forces. Damped free vibrations In the last part of the chapter, we considered the damped vibrations of a mechanical system. First, we analyzed the damped free vibrations of a system with viscous damping [Sec. 19.8]. We found that the motion of such a system was defined by the differential equation mẍ 1 cẋ 1 kx 5 0 (19.38) bee29400_ch19_1212-1287.indd Page 1281 12/16/08 12:42:51 PM user-s172 where c is a constant called the coefficient of viscous damping. Defining the critical damping coefficient cc as cc 5 2m k 5 2mv n Am /Volumes/204/MHDQ077/work%0/indd%0 Review and Summary (19.41) where vn is the natural circular frequency of the system in the absence of damping, we distinguished three different cases of damping, namely, (1) heavy damping, when c . cc; (2) critical damping, when c 5 cc; and (3) light damping, when c , cc. In the first two cases, the system when disturbed tends to regain its equilibrium position without any oscillation. In the third case, the motion is vibratory with diminishing amplitude. In Sec. 19.9, we considered the damped forced vibrations of a mechanical system. These vibrations occur when a system with viscous damping is subjected to a periodic force P of magnitude P 5 Pm sin vf t or when it is elastically connected to a support with an alternating motion d 5 dm sin vf t. In the first case, the motion of the system was defined by the differential equation mẍ 1 cẋ 1 kx 5 Pm sin vf t Damped forced vibrations (19.47) and in the second case by a similar equation obtained by replacing Pm by kdm in (19.47). The steady-state vibration of the system is represented by a particular solution of Eq. (19.47) of the form xpart 5 xm sin (vf t 2 w) (19.48) Dividing the amplitude xm of the steady-state vibration by Pm/k in the case of a periodic force, or by dm in the case of an oscillating support, we obtained the following expression for the magnification factor: xm xm 1 5 5 Pm/k dm 2[1 2 (v f /v n ) 2 ] 2 1 [2(c/cc ) (v f /v n ) ] 2 (19.53) where vn 5 1k/m 5 natural circular frequency of undamped system cc 5 2mvn 5 critical damping coefficient c/cc 5 damping factor We also found that the phase difference w between the impressed force or support movement and the resulting steady-state vibration of the damped system was defined by the relation tan w 5 2(c/cc )(v f /v n) 1 2 (v f /v n) 2 (19.54) The chapter ended with a discussion of electrical analogues [Sec. 19.10], in which it was shown that the vibrations of mechnical systems and the oscillations of electrical circuits are defined by the same differential equations. Electrical analogues of mechanical systems can therefore be used to study or predict the behavior of these systems. Electrical analogues 1281 bee29400_ch19_1212-1287.indd Page 1282 12/16/08 12:42:52 PM user-s172 /Volumes/204/MHDQ077/work%0/indd%0 REVIEW PROBLEMS 19.159 A thin square plate of side a can oscillate about an axis AB located a A b G B at a distance b from its mass center G. (a) Determine the period of small oscillations if b 5 12 a. (b) Determine a second value of b for which the period of small oscillations is the same as that found in part a. 19.160 A 150-kg electromagnet is at rest and is holding 100 kg of scrap a Fig. P19.159 steel when the current is turned off and the steel is dropped. Knowing that the cable and the supporting crane have a total stiffness equivalent to a spring of constant 200 kN/m, determine (a) the frequency, the amplitude, and the maximum velocity of the resulting motion, (b) the minimum tension which will occur in the cable during the motion, (c) the velocity of the magnet 0.03 s after the current is turned off. B A Fig. P19.160 19.161 Disks A and B weigh 30 lb and 12 lb, respectively, and a small 5-lb block C is attached to the rim of disk B. Assuming that no slipping occurs between the disks, determine the period of small oscillations of the system. A rA = 8 in. B C Fig. P19.161 1282 rB = 6 in. bee29400_ch19_1212-1287.indd Page 1283 12/16/08 8:48:46 PM user-s172 /Volumes/204/MHDQ077/work%0/indd%0 Review Problems 19.162 A period of 6.00 s is observed for the angular oscillations of a 4-oz gyroscope rotor suspended from a wire as shown. Knowing that a period of 3.80 s is obtained when a 1.25-in.-diameter steel sphere is suspended in the same fashion, determine the centroidal radius of gyration of the rotor. (Specific weight of steel 5 490 lb/ft3.) Fig. P19.162 k 19.163 A 1.5-kg block B is connected by a cord to a 2-kg block A, which is suspended from a spring of constant 3 kN/m. Knowing that the system is at rest when the cord is cut, determine (a) the frequency, the amplitude, and the maximum velocity of the resulting motion, (b) the minimum tension that will occur in the spring during the motion, (c) the velocity of block A 0.3 s after the cord has been cut. 19.164 Two rods, each of mass m and length L, are welded together to form the assembly shown. Determine (a) the distance b for which the frequency of small oscillations of the assembly is maximum, (b) the corresponding maximum frequency. L 2 L 2 A b C D L B Fig. P19.164 A B Fig. P19.163 1283 bee29400_ch19_1212-1287.indd Page 1284 1284 12/16/08 12:43:26 PM user-s172 /Volumes/204/MHDQ077/work%0/indd%0 19.165 As the rotating speed of a spring-supported motor is slowly Mechanical Vibrations increased from 200 to 500 rpm, the amplitude of the vibration due to the unbalance of the rotor is observed to decrease steadily from 8 mm to 2.5 mm. Determine (a) the speed at which resonance would occur, (b) the amplitude of the steady-state vibration at a speed of 100 rpm. 19.166 The compressor shown has a mass of 250 kg and operates at 2000 rpm. At this operating condition undesirable vibration occurs when the compressor is attached directly to the ground. To reduce the vibration of the concrete floor that is resting on clay soil, it is proposed to isolate the compressor by mounting it on a square concrete block separated from the rest of the floor as shown. The density of concrete is 2400 kg/m3 and the spring constant for the soil is found to be 80 3 10 6 N/m. The geometry of the compressor leads to choosing a block that is 1.5 m by 1.5 m. Determine the depth h that will reduce the force transmitted to the ground by 75%. Compressor Concrete block Asphalt filler Asphalt filler Floor Floor h 1.5 m clay soil Fig. P19.166 A l G B D Fig. P19.167 19.167 If either a simple or a compound pendulum is used to determine experimentally the acceleration of gravity g, difficulties are encountered. In the case of the simple pendulum, the string is not truly weightless, while in the case of the compound pendulum, the exact location of the mass center is difficult to establish. In the case of a compound pendulum, the difficulty can be eliminated by using a reversible, or Kater, pendulum. Two knife edges A and B are placed so that they are obviously not at the same distance from the mass center G, and the distance l is measured with great precision. The position of a counterweight D is then adjusted so that the period of oscillation t is the same when either knife edge is used. Show that the period t obtained is equal to that of a true simple pendulum of length l and that g 5 4p2 l/t2. bee29400_ch19_1212-1287.indd Page 1285 12/16/08 12:43:30 PM user-s172 19.168 A 400-kg motor supported by four springs, each of constant 150 kN/m, is constrained to move vertically. Knowing that the unbalance of the rotor is equivalent to a 23-g mass located at a distance of 100 mm from the axis of rotation, determine for a speed of 800 rpm (a) the amplitude of the fluctuating force transmitted to the foundation, (b) the amplitude of the vertical motion of the motor. Fig. P19.168 19.169 Solve Prob. 19.168, assuming that a dashpot of constant c 5 6500 N ? s/m is introduced between the motor and the ground. 19.170 A small ball of mass m attached at the midpoint of a tightly stretched elastic cord of length l can slide on a horizontal plane. The ball is given a small displacement in a direction perpendicular to the cord and released. Assuming the tension T in the cord to remain constant, (a) write the differential equation of motion of the ball, (b) determine the period of vibration. x T l 2 Fig. P19.170 T l 2 /Volumes/204/MHDQ077/work%0/indd%0 Review Problems 1285 bee29400_ch19_1212-1287.indd Page 1286 12/16/08 12:43:35 PM user-s172 /Volumes/204/MHDQ077/work%0/indd%0 COMPUTER PROBLEMS 19.C1 By expanding the integrand in Eq. (19.19) into a series of even powers of sin f and integrating, it can be shown that the period of a simple pendulum of length l can be approximated by the expression tn 5 2p l 1 2 133 2 4 13335 2 6 c 1 1 a b c2 1 a bc 1a b c 1 pd Ag 2 234 23436 where c 5 sin 12 um and um is the amplitude of the oscillations. Use computational software to calculate the sum of the series in brackets, using successively 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 terms, for values of um from 30 to 120° using 30° increments. 19.C2 The force-deflection equation for a class of non-linear springs fixed at one end, is F 5 5x1/n where F is the magnitude, expressed in newtons, of the force applied at the other end of the spring and x is the deflection expressed in meters. Knowing that a block of mass m is suspended from the spring and is given a small downward displacement from its equilibrium position, use computational software to calculate and plot the frequency of vibration of the block for values of m equal to 0.2, 0.6, and 1.0 kg and values of n from 1 to 2. Assume that the slope of the force-deflection curve at the point corresponding to F 5 mg can be used as an equivalent spring constant. 19.C3 A machine element supported by springs and connected to a dashpot is subjected to a periodic force of magnitude P 5 Pm sin vf t. The transmissibility Tm of the system is defined as the ratio Fm /Pm of the maximum value Fm of the fluctuating periodic force transmitted to the foundation to the maximum value Pm of the periodic force applied to the machine element. Use computational software to calculate and plot the value of Tm for frequency ratios vf /vn equal to 0.8, 1.4, and 2.0 and for damping factors c/cc equal to 0, 1, and 2. (Hint: Use the formula given in Prob. 19.148.) P = Pm sin w f t Fig. P19.C3 1286 bee29400_ch19_1212-1287.indd Page 1287 12/16/08 12:43:38 PM user-s172 19.C4 A 15-kg motor is supported by four springs, each of constant 60 kN/m. The unbalance of the motor is equivalent to a mass of 20 g located 125 mm from the axis of rotation. Knowing that the motor is constrained to move vertically, use computational software to calculate and plot the amplitude of the vibration and the maximum acceleration of the motor for motor speeds of 1000 to 2500 rpm. 19.C5 Solve Prob. 19.C4, assuming that a dashpot having a coefficient of damping c 5 2.5 kN · s/m has been connected to the motor base and to the ground. 19.C6 A small trailer and its load have a total mass of 250 kg. The trailer is supported by two springs, each of constant 10 kN/m, and is pulled over a road, the surface of which can be approximated by a sine curve with an amplitude of 40 mm and a wave length of 5 m (i.e., the distance between successive crests is 5 m and the vertical distance from crest to trough is 80 mm). (a) Neglecting the mass of the wheels and assuming that the wheels stay in contact with the ground, use computational software to calculate and plot the amplitude of the vibration and the maximum vertical acceleration of the trailer for speeds of 10 to 80 km/h. (b) Determine the range of values of the speed of the trailer for which the wheels will lose contact with the ground. v 5m Fig. P19.C6 /Volumes/204/MHDQ077/work%0/indd%0 Computer Problems 1287 bee29400_ch19_1212-1288.indd Page 1288 12/18/08 3:14:31 PM user-s172 /Volumes/204/MHDQ077/work%0/indd%0